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昂立教育 > 托福机经 > 听力 > 2011.06预测听力【9】_090911NA_

2011.06预测听力【9】_090911NA_
发布时间:2013-01-10 作者:昂立 来源于:昂立外语网站

Conversation 1

Topic

图书馆

Details

学生问管理员说自己借了书,并申请续借,为什么还要他来图书馆还书,管理员说因为已经有人预订了,所以他必须先归还,2个星期后再续借。但学生说这本书对他很重要,但他只需要其中的几个章节,管理员建议他复制下这些章节。最后的结果是学生填表优先续借,并归还了所有的书。

Glossary

Privilege

professional privilege

职业上的特权

2.  an exclusive privilege

专有特权

Cancel

1.  Cancel appointment
 

取消约会

2.  cancel a contract
 

取消契约

Librarian

2.  The new librarian is very polite.
 

新来的图书管理员很有礼貌。

3.  The librarian is coding the new books.
 

图书馆员在为新书编号。

4.  The librarian is a very serious woman.
 

图书管理员是个很严肃的女人。

Renew

2.  renew old acquaintanceship
 

恢复旧交

3.  renew one's knowledge
 

更新知识

4.  to renew provisions
 

补充食粮

Due

2.  due profits
 

应得利润

3.  due authority
 

适当的权限

5.  Due esteem; all due respect.
 

应有的评价;全部应有的尊敬

Conversation  2

Topic

学术

Details

教授告诉学生由于她最近的一个报告写得很成功,建议她申请研究奖学金,以便她进行进一步的研究,老师建议她波士顿的一所大学,里面有很多相关的但没公开的信息。

Glossary

Undergraduate

2.  On undergraduate advisor system
 

论本科生导师制度

3.  a third-year undergraduate.
 

第三年上大学的学生。

5.  a first-year undergraduate.
 

第一年上大学的大学生。

recommendation letter

3.  A good face is a letter of recommendation.
 

漂亮的面孔就是最好的介绍信。

4.  A good presence is a letter of recommendation.
 

良好的风度是一封自荐信。

.report

2.  Millennium Report
 

千年报告

3.  investigation report
 

调查报告

4.  Minority Report
 

少数派报告

.research fund

 The Applied Research Fund provides seed capital for technology ventures.
 

应用研究基金为科技研究提供基本经费;

Lecture one

Topic

海顿生平

Details

海顿,著名的奥地利作曲家维也纳古典乐派的最早期代表。他在艰苦的环境中创作了大量作品,成为当时首屈一指的音乐家。后两次去伦敦旅行,写了十二部《伦敦交响乐》,是他一生中最优秀的作品,从此名震全欧。的创作涉及面很广,其中以交响乐和弦乐四重奏最为杰出。他把交响乐固定为四个乐章的形式,并在配器上形成一套完整的交响乐队编制,为现代交响乐的发展奠定了基础。他在乐曲的发展中常用主题活用的原则,这直接启示着贝多芬动机发展的灵感。

Glossary

accelerando (accel.) 渐快的
acoustics
声学
Anti- impressionism
反印象主义
anticipation
先现音
anvil
乐砧弦
diminished
减(音程)
suite
组曲
dissonant
不协和(音程、和弦)提琴
duo
二重唱
duple meter(s)
二拍子 (2/2,2/4,2/8)
exposition
呈示部

Expressionism
表现主义
false chord
假和弦唱名法
flat
降调
flute
长笛

Relevant passage

A central characteristic of Haydn's music is the development of larger structures out of very short, simple musical motifs, often derived from standard accompanying figures. The music is often quite formally concentrated, and the important musical events of a movement can unfold rather quickly.

Haydn's work was central to the development of what came to be called sonata form. His practice, however, differed in some ways from that of Mozart and Beethoven, his younger contemporaries who likewise excelled in this form of composition. Haydn was particularly fond of the so-called "monothematic exposition", in which the music that establishes the dominant key is similar or identical to the opening theme. Haydn also differs from Mozart and Beethoven in his recapitulation sections, where he often rearranges the order of themes compared to the exposition and uses extensive thematic development.

Haydn's formal inventiveness also led him to integrate the fugue into the classical style and to enrich the rondo form with more cohesive tonal logic (see sonata rondo form). Haydn was also the principal exponent of the double variation formvariations on two alternating themes, which are often major- and minor-mode versions of each other.

Perhaps more than any other composer's, Haydn's music is known for its humor.  The most famous example is the sudden loud chord in the slow movement of his "Surprise" symphony; Haydn's many other musical jokes include numerous false endings (e.g., in the quartets Op. 33 No. 2 and Op. 50 No. 3), and the remarkable rhythmic illusion placed in the trio section of the third movement of Op. 50 No. 1.

Much of the music was written to please and delight a prince, and its emotional tone is correspondingly upbeat.[citation needed] This tone also reflects, perhaps, Haydn's fundamentally healthy and well-balanced personality. Occasional minor-key works, often deadly serious in character, form striking exceptions to the general rule. Haydn's fast movements tend to be rhythmically propulsive and often impart a great sense of energy, especially in the finales. Some characteristic examples of Haydn's "rollicking" finale type are found in the "London" symphony No. 104, the string quartet Op. 50 No. 1, and the piano trio Hob XV: 27. Haydn's early slow movements are usually not too slow in tempo, relaxed, and reflective. Later on, the emotional range of the slow movements increases, notably in the deeply felt slow movements of the quartets Op. 76 Nos. 3 and 5, Symphony No. 98, Symphony No. 102, and piano trio Hob XV: 23. The minuets tend to have a strong downbeat and a clearly popular character. As early as Op. 33 (1781) Haydn turned some of his minuets into "scherzi" which are much faster, at one beat to the bar.

Lecture two

Topic

地理学

Glossary

参见地理学词汇

Details

火山堆全球变暖的影响

Relevant

Knowledge  

The most common perception of a volcano is of a conical mountain, spewing lava and poisonous gases from a crater at its summit. This describes just one of many types of volcano, and the features of volcanoes are much more complicated. The structure and behavior of volcanoes depends on a number of factors. Some volcanoes have rugged peaks formed by lava domes rather than a summit crater, whereas others present landscape features such as massive plateaus. Vents that issue volcanic material (lava, which is what magma is called once it has escaped to the surface, and ash) and gases (mainly steam and magmatic gases) can be located anywhere on the landform.

Other types of volcano include cryovolcanoes (or ice volcanoes), particularly on some moons of Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune; and mud volcanoes, which are formations often not associated with known magmatic activity. Active mud volcanoes tend to involve temperatures much lower than those of igneous volcanoes, except when a mud volcano is actually a vent of an igneous volcano.

Lecture three

Topic

环境科学

Details

煤炭挖掘

Glossary

goafold waste 老塘(采空区)
gob water
waste water 老塘水

Continuous Miner
连续采煤机
coking coal
炼焦煤
outcrop
露头
Roof collaspe
冒顶
mining concession
煤矿开采(特许)权
mine field
煤田
mudstone 
泥岩
gob bleeder
排气孔(采空区)
spalling rib
片帮
side falling accident
片帮事故

Lecture  four

Topic

生态学

Details

一个小岛的生态研究对科学们决定怎么样保护野生动物很有启示。但是 大家又争论到底是建立一个大的保护地好,还是建立几个小的保护地好?后来有一种解决方式是,建立一些小的,然后把它们连起来。这样一种动物在一个保护地呆不下去了还可以迁移到另处。但最后说这方法也有弊端,比如连接起来也有利于疾病传播了。

Glossary

ecological crisis 生态危机 
ecological cycle 生态循环 
ecological damage 生态破坏 
ecological density 生态密度 
ecological distance 生态距离 
ecological distribution 生态分布 
ecological divergence 生态分歧 
ecological dominace 生态学优势 
ecological dominancy 生态优势 

ecological effect 生态影响

加试题

参见经典加试题

 

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