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昂立教育 > 托福机经 > 阅读 > 2011.06预测阅读【10】_100122NA_

2011.06预测阅读【10】_100122NA_
发布时间:2013-01-11 作者:昂立 来源于:昂立外语网站

READING SECTION

 

Passage 1

Topic

伦底纽姆见证罗马帝国统治的兴亡   历史/文化

Mind map

Roman Empire-- Roman Emperor Claudius led an invasion in AD 43 and established Londinium as a town. At the point the Thames was narrow enough to build a bridge, and the Romans built a port. Around 50 AD Roman merchants found it a perfect place to set up business along the river.

 

Some time between 190 and 225, the Romans built the London Wall, a defensive wall around the landward side of the city.

Roman Empire’s Decline-In the late 4th and early 5th centuries the Roman Empire could no longer defend itself against either internal rebellion or the external threat posed by expanding Germanic tribes in northern and Eastern Europe. This situation and its consequences governed the separation of Britain from the empire.

 

In 410, the Roman occupation of Britain officially came to an end. Emperor Honorius told Britons to look after their own defenses against those barbarians.

Glossary

Londinium  n.

    至公元一世纪,罗马人在皇帝Claudius的领导下正式在公元43年征服了这个后来成为英国的地方。他们在泰晤士河畔建筑了一个聚居点,取名为“伦底纽姆”(Londinium)。后来,罗马人在此修筑城墙,并且在城墙包围的地区逐步建立一个具规模的城市。虽然Londinium看来像是拉丁文的名字,但有学者认为,此字源于本来在这个地方生活的凯尔特人(Celts)所用的语言,意思可能是荒野地方,或者河流流经的地方。

the empire on which the sun never sets

日不落帝国。照耀在部分领土上的太阳落下而另一部分领土上的太阳仍然高挂的帝国,通常用来形容繁荣强盛、在全世界均有殖民地并掌握当时霸权的帝国。而如今该词在一定的场合用来形容帝国主义,而未必特指某一统一的国家政体。

Boudicca  n.

公元61年,布迪卡女王(Boudicca)带领民众反抗罗马人的统治,她所领导的军队进军到伦敦。伦敦在战火中被毁,战乱后伦敦又被布迪卡女王重建。城中的富人们用石头和砖瓦来建造房屋,而大多数的穷人们只能住木屋。

usurper  n.

篡位者。

barbarian  n.

野蛮人,未开化的人

Anglo-Saxon London

    在罗马帝国统治结束后的伦敦落入盎格鲁撒克逊人的手中,他们的统治一直到1066年诺曼征服才结束。

 

Passage 2

Topic

农业对于社会发展的影响       经济/社会

Mind map

Glossary

yield  n.

产量。近义词output, harvest

productivity  n.

生产率。用来表示产出和投入比率。

photosynthesis  n.

光合作用。记忆方法:photo+synthesis合成

irrigation  n.

灌溉。

dust suppression

除尘措施。

sewage disposal

污水处理

drainage  n.

    排水,排水系统

dry-land farming

只依靠雨水完成土壤灌溉的耕作。

marginal utility

边际效应。有时也称为边际贡献,是指消费者在逐次增加一个单位消费品的时候,带来的单位效用是逐渐递减的(虽然带来的总效用仍然是增加的)。我们向往某事物时,情绪投入越多,第一次接触到此事物时情感体验也越为强烈,但是,第二次接触时,会淡一些,第三次,会更淡……以此发展,我们接触该事物的次数越多,我们的情感体验也越为淡漠,一步步趋向乏味。

Supplementary reading

Irrigation, the artificial watering of land for agriculture, uses water from a number of sources: direct rainfall, direct stream flow, water stored in lakes and reservoirs, high-quality groundwater, brackish surface water, and even seawater. Water for irrigation is diverted from rivers and lakes or pumped underground. Different crops have different irrigation requirements, so there are many forms of irrigation and types of irrigation technology.

Various methods of surface irrigation deliver water to a field directly from a canal, well, or ditch. The surface technique of flooding large fields is widely used because of low capital costs and long tradition. Furrow irrigation, practiced since ancient times, involves digging numerous U-or V-shaped open furrows through irrigated land and introducing water into them from a channel at the top of a field. As with other surface techniques, water collects into ponds on the field. In surface-pipe irrigation, the water is piped to the field and distributed via sprinklers or smaller pipes.

Border irrigation is a type of surface irrigation that involves flooding land in long parallel strips separated by earth banks built lengthwise in the direction of the slope of the land. Water flows from the highest point in the field to the lowest. Basin irrigation is similar to border irrigation but includes earth banks constructed crosswise to those used for border irrigation, dividing a field into a series of basins that can be separately irrigated. 

 

Passage 3

Topic

辐射      科技/生物

Glossary

nuclear meltdown

核心熔毁,指核反应堆失去冷却水后,燃料中放射性物质产生的热量无法去除,高温会令燃料棒熔化,这是核电事故中最严重的事态。

radiation leak

核泄漏

radiation exposure

    辐射暴露

gas mask

    防毒面具

protective gear

    防护服

radiation detective gadget

    辐射监测仪

potassium iodide tablets

碘化钾片

radioactive pollution/contamination

    核污染

Supplementary Reading

Uses of radiation

In medicine

Radiation and radioactive substances are used for diagnosis, treatment, and research. X-rays, for example, pass through muscles and other soft tissue but are stopped by dense materials. This property of X-rays enables doctors to find broken bones and to locate cancers that might be growing in the body. Doctors also find certain diseases by injecting a radioactive substance and monitoring the radiation given off as the substance moves through the body. Radiation used for cancer treatment is called ionizing radiation because it forms ions in the cells of the tissues it passes through as it dislodges electrons from atoms. This can kill cells or change genes so the cells cannot grow. Other forms of radiation such as radio waves, microwaves, and light waves are called non-ionizing. They don't have as much energy and are not able to ionize cells.

 

In communication

All modern communication systems use forms of electromagnetic radiation. Variations in the intensity of the radiation represent changes in the sound, pictures, or other information being transmitted. For example, a human voice can be sent as a radio wave or microwave by making the wave vary to correspond variations in the voice.

 

In science

Researchers use radioactive atoms to determine the age of materials that were once part of a living organism. The age of such materials can be estimated by measuring the amount of radioactive carbon they contain in a process called radiocarbon dating. Environmental scientists use radioactive atoms known as tracer atoms to identify the pathways taken by pollutants through the environment.

 

Radiation is used to determine the composition of materials in a process called neutron activation analysis. In this process, scientists bombard a sample of a substance with particles called neutrons. Some of the atoms in the sample absorb neutrons and become radioactive. The scientists can identify the elements in the sample by studying the emitted radiation.

 

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