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昂立教育 > 托福机经 > 阅读 > 2011.06预测阅读【11】_090919NA_

2011.06预测阅读【11】_090919NA_
发布时间:2013-01-11 作者:昂立 来源于:昂立外语网站

READING SECTION

 

Passage 1

Topic

金字塔的建造                历史

Mindmap

Glossary

the Great Pyramid (the Great Pyramid of Giza)

大金字塔, 是最大的一座是古埃及第四朝法老胡夫(Khufu)的金字塔,位于开罗近郊吉萨(Giza),建于大约公元前27世纪。

Pharaoh

   法老,古埃及国王的尊称。法老作为奴隶制专制君主,掌握全国的军政、司法、宗教大权,其意志就是法律,是古埃及的最高统治者。法老自称是太阳神阿蒙-赖神之子,是神在地上的代理人和化身。

Khufu

胡夫,埃及第四王朝第二位法老,他可能是世界上最早的独裁者之一,胡夫在位的时间说法不一,最普遍的说法是23(2590 BC - 2568 BC)

by and large

   大致,大体而言

archaeology  n.

   考古学

quarry   v.

采石

hauler  n.

   搬运工

mason  n.

石匠;泥瓦工

ramp  n. 

   斜面;坡道

precinct  n.

   境域,界域

phyla  n.

宗族

Nile inundation

尼罗河泛滥。尼罗河被视为埃及的生命线。几千年来,尼罗河每年6~10月定期泛滥。8月份河水上涨最高时,淹没了河岸两旁的大片田野,之后人们纷纷迁往高处暂住。十月以后,洪水消退,带来了尼罗河丰沛的土壤

Supplementary

Reading

We do know much more about the work activities, particularly at Giza, then ever before. Archaeologists have carefully studied the worker's villages, the craft shops, the bakeries and other related structures, which of course give us some idea of the workforce. So how many people did it take to build the Great Pyramid at Giza? Verner tells us that the current consensus among Egyptologists sets the figure at a little more than 30,000. Lehner, who has worked at Giza for many years and conducted experiments on building pyramids, is considered one of the leading authorities on these structures. He claims a somewhat lower estimate, including carpenters to make tools and sledges, metal workers to make and sharpen cutting tools, potters to make pots for food preparation and hauling water for mortar and other purposes, bakers, brewers and others, consisting of between 20,000 and 25,000 workers at any one time. In fact, as the pyramid grew, fewer and fewer men were probably required, for work at the top required much less stone and the construction space became more limited. This number of men, which was probably drastically reduced during the agricultural seasons, probably finished the Great Pyramid of Khufu in less then 23 years.

 This discussion has mostly focused on the Great Pyramid of Khufu which, simply because it was the largest pyramid we know of that the Egyptians built, seems to pose the greatest problems. Of course, we also know much more about it than many other pyramids. However, it should be noted that some of the earlier and many of the later pyramids would have required much less labor. Most, of course, were smaller, and at least a few built prior to the Great Pyramid used a more gentle slope, hence requiring less material. A number of pyramids, like that of Khufu, used rock outcroppings in their construction, and most, including Khufu's pyramid, had some "fill" material. Later pyramid's employed the use of mudbrick in their cores, so the labor required to build these pyramids was considerably reduced.

All of this discussion is not to say that the early Egyptians did not commit considerable resources to these building projects. It is estimated that during the century and a half composing the 4th Dynasty, some nine million cubic meters of masonry was utilized in royal construction projects. Essentially, the Egyptians became the world's best construction managers, and these skills served them well for some 2,500 years.

 

Passage 2

Topic

厄尔尼诺和拉尼娜现象                 地理

Mindmap

Glossary

anomaly   n.

反常;异常

El Niño

是太平洋赤道带大范围内海洋和大气相互作用后失去平衡而产生的一种气候现象,就是沃克环流圈东移造成的。正常情况下,热带太平洋区域的季风洋流是从美洲走向亚洲,使太平洋表面保持温暖,给印尼周围带来热带降雨。但这种模式每2—7年被打乱一次,使风向和洋流发生逆转,太平洋表层的热流就转而向东走向美洲,随之便带走了热带降雨,出现所谓的厄尔尼诺现象

Southern Oscillation

    南方涛动, 是热带环流年际变化最突出、最重要的一个现象。主要指发生在东南太平洋与印度洋及印尼地区之间的反相气压振动。即东南太平洋气压偏高时印度洋及印尼地区气压偏低,反之亦然。

ENSO

厄尔尼诺-南方涛动现象。赤道厄尔尼诺与南方涛动二者的组合缩略词。

La Niña

    拉尼娜,是指赤道太平洋东部和中部海面温度持续异常偏冷的现象(与厄尔尼诺现象正好相反),是热带海洋和大气共同作用的产物。

amplitude   n.

    振幅

basin   n.

流域

trade winds

    信风,指的是在地空从副热带高压带吹向赤道低气压带的风。信风在赤道两边的低层大气中,北半球吹东北风,南半球吹东南风,这种风的方向很少改变,它们年年如此,稳定出现,很讲信用,这是trade wind在中文中被翻译成信风的原因。

equator   n.

赤道

upwelling   n.

    上涌;上升流(指海水由较深层上升到较浅层的过程)

Supplementary reading

EL NIÑO PACIFIC OUTLOOK

 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon that impacts global weather patterns. The El Niño portion of this phenomenon is considered the warm phase of ENSO because it is associated with warmer than average sea surface temperatures over the tropical Pacific.

The exact mechanism that triggers an El Niño event is unknown. We do know that persistent trade winds blowing across the Pacific pile up water towards the western portion of the basin. These trade winds relax which sets off what is known as a Kelvin wave. This sounds all fancy but in reality a Kelvin wave is nothing more than a low amplitude, very fast moving wave.
The Kelvin wave travels across the Pacific along the equator towards the eastern portion of the Pacific basin where it then travels southward along the coast in the southern hemisphere and northward along the coast in the northern hemisphere. This Kelvin wave brings in the warmer waters which act to suppress upwelling of the cool, nutrient rich waters off of South America resulting in a deeper thermocline and thus warmer than normal sea surface temperatures.
The effects of El Niño are far reaching and the impacts are felt globally. In the Pacific we generally see a more active tropical season while in the Atlantic we see a less active season. But as we head into the fall and winter season we really begin to see more impacts from El Niño.
El Niño results in an amplified weather pattern over the Pacific Ocean which in turn gives us more frequent systems coming down the pipe. Not only do we see more frequent systems but El Niño can actually influence these storms potentially resulting in stronger Pacific storms and stronger storms potentially equals stronger swell.

Mexico, Central and South America
With the increased storminess in California and Northern Baja, looking south could be a good call this winter, especially if/when we start to see a long term pattern of more southerly based storms. As we mentioned above, the onset of El Niño can produce more intense and southerly displaced storms, which is good news for the west facing surf spots from Southern Baja to South America.
Starting in Southern Baja, the region will enjoy much of the larger and more westerly surf that is generated, but the weather and conditions will be better than Central and Southern California. That's not to say the area will be completely spared from increased storminess and precipitation; actually, it's just the opposite, with an increase in stormy weather days. Some of the southern most diving storms will bring periods of unsettled weather, especially for South/Central Baja, but those episodes will occur with less frequency than in California.
The further south you head, the better your chances of getting out of the stormy weather and into solid, clean surf. The west facing breaks of Northern Mainland Mexico, parts of Central America, Ecuador, and Northern Peru should enjoy quite an active North Pacific swell season in 2009-2010. And, as with all the regions above, these areas will also benefit from the stronger than normal storms and their location in the more southerly latitudes of the North Pacific; the closer and stronger the storm is to a particular location, the stronger the resulting swell for that region will be. Throw in the very crucial element of generally good weather and favorable conditions and you have a strong, long term 'best bet' from November through March or April this year from northern Mainland Mexico through Peru.
Overall, it appears that we could have plenty of options throughout the Pacific this winter, whether we surf, snowboard or ski. Keep an eye on the forecasts as we'll certainly dial you into and help you score the best surf conditions possible wherever you may be.

 

Passage 3

Topic

人体体温传递                     生物

Mindmap

Glossary

core temperature

    体核温度,指机体深部,包括心、肺、脑和腹部器官的温度,又称深部温度。体核温度比体表温度高,且比较稳定.

shell temperature

体表温度,指机体表层,包括皮肤、皮下组织和肌肉等的温度,又称表层温度。

tissue  n.

    (人、动植物的)组织

dissipate   v.

驱散

Eg. ~ heat  散热

transfer   v.

    传递

sweat gland

汗腺

perspiration   n.

汗;汗水

thermoregulation   n.

体温调节, 是指温度感受器接受体内、外环境温度的刺激,通过体温调节中枢的活动,相应地引起内分泌腺、骨骼肌、皮肤血管和汗腺等组织器官活动的改变,从而调整机体的产热和散热过程,使体温保持在相对恒定的水平。

heatstroke   n.

中暑

cramps  n.

痉挛

Supplementary reading

Heat Control In The Human Body

The human body may be thought of as having a core and a shell; this assumption will make it easier to understand the heat control in the body. The core contains the deep muscles and tissues, including the heart, lungs, abdominal organs, and brain. The shell contains the skin, tissues forming the skin base, and the muscles close to the skin; the hands and feet are also part of the body shell.
Rectal temperatures are a measure of the core temperature. At rest, the body core temperature remains almost uniform. Under extreme conditions-from sleeping in a cold environment to doing hard work in a hot work site -- the core temperature varies from 95 to 104ºF.
The health of a person at work and at rest depends upon the stability of the core body temperature. The core cannot store an excessive amount of heat without upsetting its delicate temperature balance. oral temperatures are a measure of core and the shell temperatures; the body core can dissipate its heat only through the shell. Blood serves as an effective vehicle for heat transfer between the body core and the shell.
The human body, when exposed to a wide range of increasing heat loads, can mobilize its resources and restore a balance between heat gain and heat loss. This leads to a new steady core temperature at a somewhat higher level. Heat stress refers to the total heat-related load on the individual from both environmental and metabolic sources.
An increasing environmental heat stress causes changes in sweat rate, heartbeat rate, and body core temperature of the affected individual.
Heat strain refers to the adjustments made by the individual in response to the heat stress. These adjustments include biochemical, physiological, and psychological processes.
Healthy and physically fit persons are able to work under heat strain as long as sweat evaporation takes place; by contrast, persons with health problems have a limited capacity for heat strain endurance.
An increase in the sweat rate is the first sign of the heat strain. The steady rise of the sweat rate causes an excessive wetting of the skin. Extended exposure to heat will cause a decline in sweat rate. The sweat gland fatigue and consequent reduction in sweat production indicates a very high level of heat strain.
Some people have no sweat glands at all; such a condition should disqualify them from working in hot environments.
Individuals working in hot areas under emergency conditions (mine rescue workers) and highly motivated individuals working in nonemergency conditions may overstrain themselves. To prevent this kind of strain, the workloads may be reduced, more recovery time may be allowed, or cool rest areas may be provided.

 

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