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昂立教育 > 托福机经 > 阅读 > 2011.06预测阅读【13】_091017NA_

2011.06预测阅读【13】_091017NA_
发布时间:2013-01-11 作者:昂立 来源于:昂立外语网站

READING SECTION

 

Passage 1

Topic

英国和北美殖民地的差别   历史

Mindmap

 

Great Britain

North American Colonies

Industry

Highly industrialized

Mercantilism

Laissez-faire

Slave trade

Middle class %

Boom from 15%~20%

Related with agriculture

Right to vote

The majority didn’t have the right to vote.

Enjoy autonomy

Glossary

mercantilism  n.

重商主义, 也称作商业本位 重商主义是十八世纪在欧洲受欢迎的政治经济体制。它建立在这样的信念上:即一国的国力基于通过贸易的顺差--即出口额大于进口额--所能获得的财富。是封建主义解体之后的1617世纪西欧资本原始积累时期的一种经济理论或经济体系,反映资本原始积累时期商业资产阶级利益的经济理论和政策体系。

laissez-faire  n.

自由放任,又称自由放任主义或无干涉主义,源自法语的“laissez-faire”(让他做、让他去、让他走),意思就是政府放手让商人自由进行贸易。这一词首先在18世纪由重农主义在字典里使用,以反对政府对贸易的干涉。这一词到了19世纪早期和中期成为了自由市场经济学的同义词。自由放任主义反对政府对经济的干涉,并且反对政府征收除了足以维持和平、治安和财产权以外的税赋。

在欧洲和美国早期的经济学理论中,自由放任的经济政策通常与反面的重商主义经济政策做比较,重商主义的经济政策在英国、美国、德国、意大利、西班牙、法国和其他西欧国家崛起时都担当了支配的角色。

autonomy  n.

自主权

House of Commons

英国国会下议院。英国国会由三大部份组成,它们分别是君主、作为上院的上议院,以及下议院,当中又以下议院最具影响力。下议院是一个透过民主选举产生的机构,内面共有646名成员,称为国会议员,常用的英文简写则是“MP”Members of Parliament)。

House of Lords

英国国会上议院。上议院议员分为两种上议院神职议员Lords Spiritual[即英国国教Church of England中的高级神职人员]和上议院世俗议员Lords Temporal(即贵族成员)。上议院议员大部分是以指派方式产生。

ballot  n.

   秘密投票,选举

referendum  n.

    公民投票

Supplementary reading

Voting in Early America

Colonial Voting restrictions reflected eighteenth-century English notions about gender, race, prudence, and financial success, as well as vested interest. Arguments for a white, male-only electorate focused on what the men of the era conceived of as the delicate nature of women and their inability to deal with the coarse realities of politics, as well as convictions about race and religion. African Americans and Native Americans were excluded, and, at different times and places, the Protestant majority denied the vote to Catholics and Jews. In some places, propertied women, free blacks, and Native Americans could vote, but those exceptions were just that. They were not signs of a popular belief in universal suffrage.

Property requirements were widespread. Some colonies required a voter to own a certain amount of land or land of a specified value. Others required personal property of a certain value, or payment of a certain amount of taxes. Examples from 1763 show the variety of these requirements. Delaware expected voters to own fifty acres of land or property worth £40. Rhode Island set the limit at land valued at £40 or worth an annual rent of £2. Connecticut required land worth an annual rent of £2 or livestock worth £40.

Colonies also restricted opportunities to serve in their legislatures. Immediately before the Revolution, five insisted on significant property requirements for officeholders. But candidates tended to be wealthy anyway.

By twenty-first-century standards, colonial assemblies did not conduct much business. They passed few bills and dealt with a narrow range of issues. They tended to linger, however. Legislative sessions lasted weeks, sometimes months. Tradesmen, merchants, and owners of small and medium farms could not afford to neglect work for extended periods. The wealthy could.

Holding office yielded few immediate benefits and some real costs. Men ran for office from a sense of duty and the prestige associated with a legislative seat.

Colonial elections little resembled today's. Election intervals often were irregular. Governors called for polls whenever they seemed necessary—though Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Pennsylvania, for example, conducted them annually. Sheriffs posted notices of elections in prominent places throughout their bailiwicks. On the appointed day, voters traveled to a courthouse to cast their ballots.

Source< http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/spring07/elections.cfm >

 

Passage 2

Topic

鱼怎么适应在水中呼吸  生物

Mindmap

 

 

Water temperature & Oxygen

1. oxygen solubility

salt and fresh water: hot water < cold water

2.actual amount of oxygen in water

  surface > deep

3. fish adaptability

a. Some prefer cold, others prefer warm

b. Some kinds of chemicals bind to gills and stop them from working.

Glossary

respiration  n.

呼吸

Eg. artificial respiration 人工呼吸

respiratory system

呼吸系统

gill  n.

(鱼等的)鳃。鱼的呼吸系统是鳃。在头部两侧,分别有两块很大的鳃盖,鳃盖里面的空腔叫鳃腔。掀起鳃盖,可以看见在咽喉两侧各有四个鳃,每个鳃又分成两排鳃片,每排鳃片由许多鳃丝排列组成,每根鳃丝的两侧又生出许多细小的鳃小片。鱼在水中时,每个鳃片、鳃丝、鳃小片都完全张开,使鳃和水的接触。

面积扩大,增加摄取水中所溶解的氧的机会。在鳃小片中有微血管,这里的表皮很薄,当血液流过这里时就完成了气体交换:将带来的二氧化碳透过鳃小片的薄壁,送到水中;同时,吸取水中的氧,氧随血液循环输送到身体各部分去。由于口部和鳃盖的交替开闭,可以使水不断地由口进入口腔,经咽到达鳃腔,与鳃丝接触,然后由鳃孔排到外面,鱼类的呼吸作用就是在这个过程中完成的。

operculum  n.

(yǎn)亦称盖或壳盖。

artery  n.

动脉

capillary  n.

    毛细血管

gill filament

鳃丝,着生于鳃瓣上平行排列的黏膜褶。

gill lamellae

      鳃瓣, 鱼类的鳃是由鲜红的鳃瓣组成的。鳃瓣着生于鳃间隔或鳃弓的前后两侧缘,由栅板或无数鳃丝紧密排列而成。而鳃丝是由呼吸上皮摺叠而成,上面密布毛细血管,活体血管中含氧多的鳃丝外观呈鲜红色。鳃瓣是鱼类进行气体交换的呼吸器官。鳃瓣又称鳃片

Supplementary reading

How fish breathe
The process begins by water in the fish’s surrounding entering its mouth‘s. Water enters the mouth by a very effective pumping system that involves the mouth and the outer flexible bony flap that cover the gills called the operculum. This is achieved by the opening and closing of the fish's mouth as it pumps water through the gills. When the fish’s mouth is open, the operculum closes and water is drawn into the fish’s mouth. Conversely, when the fish closes its mouth, the operculum opens and fresh water is then allowed to flow across the gills.
After water enters the fish's mouth it passes through a structure called the gill rakers. The function of the gill rakers is to act as a filter system by sieving out particles such as food or any other foreign particles that may have entered the mouth from the inflow of water. The filtered water then travel through the gill arches thus passing over the gills. Here each gill consists of two rows of extremely thin membranes called gill filaments. The structure of the gill filaments consist of sequence rows of a thin, disc-like membrane loaded with a capillary network called lamellae. Gill filaments which are projected out into the water flow allows water to flow across the lamellae. This will result in
gas exchange where, oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly across the capillary membrane.
As water flows through the gills, the oxygen it contains (dissolved oxygen) passes into blood circulating through the gill structures (filaments and lamellae) while simultaneously, carbon dioxide ( the waste product) in the fish’s bloodstream passes into the water. This deoxygenated water is then carried away and out of the body through the operculum. This process repeats itself continually and this is the process by which fish breathe. This is process is also known as respiration.

 

Passage 3

Topic

珊瑚的三个种类  生物

Mindmap

Three basic types of coral reefs:

Atoll reef: An atoll is broadly defined as ring-shaped type of coral reef that surrounds a central lagoon.

Barrier Reef: A reef system that parallel the shore and is separated from it by a wide lagoon that contains at least some deep portions.

Fringing Reef: A reef system that grow fairly close to (or directly from) the shore, with an entirely shallow lagoon or no lagoon at all.

Glossary

coral  n.

珊瑚,珊瑚是一种海生圆筒状腔肠动物,在白色幼虫阶段便自动固定在先辈珊瑚的石灰质遗骨堆上,珊瑚是珊瑚虫分泌出的外壳,珊瑚的化学成分主要为CaCO3,以微晶方解石集合体形式存在,成分中还有一定数量的有机质,形态多呈树枝状,上面有纵条纹,每个单体珊瑚横断面有同心圆状和放射状条纹,颜色常呈白色,也有少量蓝色和黑色,珊瑚不仅形象像树枝,颜色鲜艳美丽,可以做装饰品,并且还有很高的药用价值。

coral reef

珊瑚礁,是石珊瑚目的动物形成的一种结构。这个结构可以大到影响其周围环境的物理和生态条件。在深海和浅海中均有珊瑚礁存在。它们是成千上万的由碳酸钙组成的珊瑚虫的骨骼在数百年至数千年的生长过程中形成的。珊瑚礁为许多动植物提供了生活环境,其中包括蠕虫、软体动物、海绵、棘皮动物和甲壳动物。此外珊瑚礁还是大洋带的鱼类的幼鱼生长地。

atoll  n.

环礁(lagoon islandring reefreef ring)是海洋中呈环状分布的珊瑚礁。中间有封闭或半封闭的潟湖或礁湖,但无非珊瑚礁成因的中央岛屿,此即与堡礁的不同之点。露出海面的高度达几米,呈圆形、椭圆形及马蹄形。直径为1130千米,深度数米至百余米。向海一侧的斜面较陡,可达45°,上部甚至达90°

barrier reef

堡礁,又称离岸礁。在距岸较远的浅海中,成带状延伸分布的大礁体,礁体与海岸之间隔着一条宽带状的浅海澙湖,澙湖深度一般不超过100,宽度达几十公里。堡礁的宽度有数百米,很少超过1000术,它隐没于水下,形成不连续的堤状岛屿,间隔处有水道沟通大洋与澙湖。堡礁的长度很大。最长的是澳大利亚东海岸的昆士兰大堡礁,它沿岸绵延达2400公里。由于地壳上升,堡礁会上升到离海面很高的地方,出露于水面上的堡礁成为珊瑚岛。

fringing reef

    岸礁, 又称边缘礁。紧靠陆地边缘生长的生物礁,与陆地之间无潟湖分隔。指紧密连着大陆或岛屿的珊瑚礁,在退潮时可看出岸礁好似海岸向外延伸的一个平台,如海南岛东部海岸即有上千米宽的岸礁。

lagoon  n.

环礁湖,(atoll lakeatoll lagoon)又称环礁湖、珊瑚湖,是指环礁内的水域或堡礁大陆间的水域。

Supplementary reading

Types of Coral Reefs

Most reef scientists generally recognize three basic types of coral reefs:

Atoll - a roughly circular (annular) oceanic reef system surrounding a central lagoon

Barrier Reef - a reef system that parallel the shore and is separated from it by a wide lagoon that contains at least some deep portions

Fringing Reef - a reef system that grow fairly close to (or directly from) the shore, with an entirely shallow lagoon or no lagoon at all

The differences between these three main reef types are pronounced in terms of large-scale structure. Nonetheless, there is often a good deal of similarity between them within a given biogeographic region in terms of dominant species of coral reef fishes, reef-building corals, and other forms of marine life, as well as their ecological interactions within the coral reef biome.

Development of Major Reef Types

The basic coral reef classification scheme described above was first proposed by Charles Darwin, and is still widely used today.

Darwin spent most of his coral reef explorations in the Indo-Pacific region, and viewed the three types of coral reefs he described as simply different stages in the geological 'evolution" of Pacific oceanic islands.

Darwin theorized that fringing reefs began to grow near the shorelines of new islands as ecological conditions became ideal for hard coral growth.

Then, as the island began to gradually subside into the sea, the coral was able to keep pace in terms of growth and remained in place at the sea surface, but farther from shore; it was now a barrier reef. Eventually, the island disappeared below the sea surface, leaving only the ring of coral encircling the central lagoon; an atoll had formed (see diagram, left).

Darwin's general "reef evolution" theory was finally verified for Indo-Pacific reefs in the early 1950s after analyses of the results of deep core drilling at Bikini and Eniwetok Atolls.

However, it has also now become apparent that each of these three types of coral reef can, in some instances, also be formed by different processes as well. This is clearly the case with most of the relatively few true atolls that occur among Caribbean coral reefs.

Source:< http://www.coral-reef-info.com/types-of-coral-reefs.html >

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