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昂立教育 > 托福机经 > 阅读 > 2011.06预测阅读【15】_091031NA_

2011.06预测阅读【15】_091031NA_
发布时间:2013-01-11 作者:昂立 来源于:昂立外语网站

READING SECTION

 

Passage 1

Topic

地理对美国经济的影响   地理

Mindmap

The outline of geography of United States:

Location: North America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico

Climate: mostly temperate

Hawaii and Florida: tropical

Alaska: arctic

the great plains west of the Mississippi River: semiarid

the Great Basin of the southwest: arid

Terrain: vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii

Land use: arable land: 19%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 25%

forests and woodland: 30%

Environment—current issues: air pollution resulting in acid rain in both the

US and Canada; the US is the largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the

burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers;

very limited natural fresh water resources in much of the western part of the

country require careful management; desertification

 


Glossary

tropical/arctic/ semiarid/arid climate

热带/北极/半干旱/干旱气候

topography  n.

地形

rugged  adj.

崎岖不平的;多岩石的

arable land

耕地

permanent crops

多年生作物,地下部的根芽或根状茎可连续多年生长并可用以进行营养体繁殖,如茶、桑、果树等木本植物。

desertification  n.

沙漠化

Rocky Mountain

落基山脉,是美洲科迪勒拉山系在北美的主干,由许多小山脉组成,被称为北美洲的脊骨,从阿拉斯加到墨西哥,南北纵贯4500多公里,广袤而缺乏植被。其名称源自印第安部落名。巍峨的落基山脉绵延起伏,自北向南,有数千公里之长。整个落基山脉由众多小山脉组成,其中有名称的就有39 条。这条巨大的山脉南北狭长,北至加拿大西部,南达美国西南部的得克萨斯州一带,几乎纵贯美国全境。除圣劳伦斯河外,北美几乎所有大河都源于落基山脉,是大陆重要分水岭。

这里有终年积雪的山峰、茂密的针叶森林、宽广的山谷、清澈的溪流、开阔的天空和丰富的矿藏资源,数百万人在这里居住和劳作,每年更有数百万人到此旅行游览。落基山脉有北美大陆最受欢迎的旅游胜地。

Glacier National Park

    冰川国家公园,冰川国家公园位于美国蒙大拿州北部、与加拿大相毗连的国境线上。落基山脉从北到南贯穿公园中心。因这里有50余条冰川,故得名冰川国家公园。冰川国家公园是北美特有物种的大观园,有一千多种树木花草。在比较干燥的东部山坡上,恩氏云杉、亚高山冷杉、小干松、花旗松和大枝松,苍劲挺拔。在气候较暖、比较湿润的西部山坡上,落叶松、冷杉、云杉茂密葱茏。冰川公园里动物种类也很多,有大角山羊、美洲豹、山狗、山猫、驼鹿、美洲大角鹿、黑熊、灰熊、白尾鹿等。

Supplementary reading

How Does a Region's Geography Impact its Economic System?

Geography plays a major component in the development of a country's economic systems. Economic geography, a subset of human geography, is based on the study of a country's resources, climate, politics, physical geography and population, as they relate to a country's economy.

Physical Geography and Location

A country's physical geography and location defines soil type, agriculture, resources and climate, which are all components in economic growth, stability and ability.

Natural Resources

A country's natural resources can make or break a country's economy. For example, a country rich in natural gas or oil reserves relies on the export of the commodity to generate revenue or for self-sustenance.
Climate

Climate regulates a country's ability to grow certain agricultural products. In turn, the availability and type of agricultural resource either inhibits or prohibits the export of goods.

Politics

A country's political ideology and regime is one of the greatest economic influences. For instance, a political regime may create trade zones, tax regulations or trade embargoes with other countries, thereby placing geographic boundaries on economic influence.

Population

A country's working-age population dictates the amount of processed services and goods created. The separation of a country's population by physical barriers, such as bodies of water or mountains, affects the trade of goods and services.

Source<http://www.ehow.com/facts_5825309_region_s-impact-its-economic-system_.html >

 

Passage 2

Topic

剧院的好处  艺术

Mindmap

Glossary

green room

   (设于剧场、 电视演播室等中的)演员休息室

patron  n.

(某活动, 某艺术等的)赞助人;顾客

project  v.

投射;放映

enact  v.

演出;表演

Eg. They enacted the old legendary tales.

chemistry  n.

    人与人之间的情感关系

score  n.

配乐

foyer  n.

     (剧场,电影院)门厅,休息厅

illumination of stage

舞台灯光

spotlight  n.

    聚光灯

Supplementary reading

Difference between Movies & Theater Performances

Both movies and theater plays need performers--known to both art forms as actors and actresses--to act out scenes as required by the scripts. The difference between the two mainly involves how they are presented to their audiences. A movie performance is recorded, edited, then shown to the audience. A theater performance is shown live to the audience.

Background

Film is a young art form, a little more than 100 years old, with its origin and primary development from the U.S. and France. Theater originated centuries ago, during ancient religious ceremonies in Greece.

Acting

There are major differences in the technical requirements for movies and theater productions. And all these requirements affect the way performers should act.

A movie uses a camera to record an actor's performance. This requires acting skills favoring the right movements, angles and audience connection, based on how the actor will look when projected on a big screen. Subtle movements can be highly effective in this medium. In theater, the actor must connect with the audience through movements and voice projection on stage. Subtle actions won't be seen, for example, by observers in the more distant seats. Depending on the size and capacity of the theater, he must often exaggerate his movements while still communicating his character's actions and emotions.

Sound

The sound requirements for movie and theater are quite different. In movies, sound may be recorded live on set, or recorded later in a studio. Either way, the dialogue is usually just a part of the final sound mix, which may include music, sound effects, background noises and other audio elements required by the story. In theater, the actors speak live. Music can either be pre-recorded or performed live (or a mix of both).

Microphone use also varies. Unlike in movies, it is generally acceptable if people see the mic worn by a theater actor. The stage actor must speak loudly and enunciate her words very clearly--even if she wouldn't do so in a similar, real-life situation--so she can be heard by the entire audience. Movie actors generally speak in more lifelike tones.

Lighting

Theater lighting is generally more dramatic, dynamic, sharp and high contrast. A spotlight typically focuses on specific actors during a performance.

In movies, the lighting depends on many variables, including the size of the shot, the continuity of the scene from one shot to the next, and the film's overall mood. For instance, films with a warm feel may feature sepia tones while movies intended to be cold often employ bluer tones with darker and longer shadows. The director's lighting treatment and shot compositions can also be manipulated during editing and other post-production work. The actors may also perform in front of blue or green screens, pretending actions are taking place on those screens. Those actions are added during post-production.

Rehearsals and Repetitions

Preparing for a play requires many rehearsals and the memorization of all the lines. During the actual performance, there is no room for a mistake because the action is all live. In movies, rehearsals and line memorization may be similar, but the actual shot can be repeated as many times as the director wants, until the best shot is acquired. If an actor forgets his line, he can do the scene over again.

Source:< http://www.ehow.com/about_6551984_difference-between-movies-theater-performances.html>

 

Passage 3

Topic

物理风化和化学风化   环境

Mindmap

Mechanical weathering: physical breaking down of rocks or surfaces

Abrasion

Exfoliation

Freeze & thaw weathering

Chemical weathering: Rocks decomposes or dissolves & changes in composition to form residual materials

Dissolution

Oxidation

Carbonation

Hydrolysis


Glossary

mechanical weathering

机械风化,又称物理风化,是最简单的风化作用,常见的物理风化的方式有温差风化、冰劈风化、盐类结晶与潮解作用和层裂作用。物理风化作用是指使岩石发生机械破碎,而没有显著的化学成分变化的作用。

abrasion  n.

磨损

exfoliation  n.

脱落,剥离作用

freeze and thaw weathering

冻融风化, 这种风化作用在温度接近冰点的山区十分常见。霜会引起风化,虽然其原因常被指为水在裂缝中结冰后膨胀而成,其实大多数都和此现象没有关系。很久之前人类已经知道湿润的泥土在冻结时,在未冻结的地方的水会经由薄层在增长中的底冰ice lenses中收集,因而引起膨胀或冻胀frost heave。同样的现象亦发生在岩石的细孔中。她们会因为吸收邻近的液态水而不断增大。冰晶的增长引致岩石弱化,最后分裂。在矿物表面、冰及水之间的分子间作用力Intermolecular forces维持一层不结冰的薄层,用作运送水份及在底冰累积时造成矿物表面间压力。

chemical weathering

化学风化,岩石发生化学成分的改变分解,称为化学风化。例如,岩石中含铁的矿物受到水和 化学风化空气作用,氧化成红褐色的氧化铁;空气中的二氧化碳和水气结合成碳酸,能溶蚀石灰岩;某些矿物吸收水分后体积膨胀;水和岩层中的矿物作用,改变原来矿物的分子结构,形成新矿物。这些作用可使岩石硬度减弱、密度变小或体积膨胀,促使岩石分解。

dissolution  n.

溶解

oxidation  n.

氧化

carbonation  n.

碳化

hydrolysis  n.

    水解

Supplementary reading

Chemical vs mechanical weathering

Weathering is a term in physics that means a gradual and ongoing transformation of rocks that are exposed on the Earth’s surface. No it is not directly connected with the Monsoon and thunders and lightning and other weather terminologies (although these natural phenomena have something to do with the process of weathering). It’s a natural occurring where other forces of nature take part in. The stampedes of animals have something to do with weathering, so is man’s industrial activities. Weathering is another part of erosion. It is generally defined as the transformation or alteration of the original rocky figure into something new or different.

Because of weathering, natural wonders of the world are made. These natural wonders are also proofs that weathering really occurs. Grand Canyon for example is only one of the most spectacular and natural rock formation made by weathering. You can also visit Philippine’s Chocolate Hills too and see that weathering can really make such spectacular views. But you don’t have to travel all across the world just to see evidence that weathering takes place. Just stroll down your garden and observe some natural rock formation. There are two types of weathering and these are chemical weathering and mechanical weathering and these two occur even without human intervention. To know more about weathering, you need to understand more of its two types. So here are the distinctions between chemical and mechanical weathering.

Chemical weathering, to begin with, includes chemicals for rocks to transform. Chemical weathering categories of rocks include dissolution, oxidation, carbonation, and hydrolysis. The transformation occurs only when water is mixed with the chemicals that acid rain delivers or when rocks form in river banks gets washed down with the chemicals from nearby certain chemical factories. Warm temperature and the tropical weather speed up the process of chemical weathering because these are the ideal conditions that chemical weathering respond to. When rocks are chemically weathered it means that it losses its original formation and transform into a new one. In the process of hydrolysis, rock mineral called as silicates combine with the acid brought about by acid rain and transformation of the rock makes it a clay mineral. In carbonation, Carbonic Acid reacts with the rock mineral called feldspar and dissolves it transforming the rock to have a new shape. Water basically plays a major role for chemical weathering to happen. Rocks cannot naturally be mixed with acid without water.

Mechanical weathering on the other hand involves external factors for rocks to be broken down into smaller pieces. These external factors include abrasion (frequently happens in the dessert; it is a process that includes friction by which the upper layer of the rock is removed because of exposure to abrasive agents), exfoliation (occurs when there’s rapid tectonic movements; the rock cracks because of the pressure and exposes its underlying layer), and freeze and thaw weathering (this commonly occur in places with low temperature; the frozen land creates large cracks on the rocks leading it to be fragmented into so many different shapes of particles).

SUMMARY:

1. Both chemical and mechanical are types of weathering that are basically defined as the transformation or alteration of the original rocky figure into something new or different.
2. Chemical weathering involves chemicals for the process of rock transformation, while mechanical are more of external participation that includes pressure.
3. Chemical weathering has four different categories include dissolution, oxidation, carbonation, and hydrolysis while mechanical weathering includes abrasion, exfoliation, and freezing and thawing.

Source:< http://www.differencebetween.net/science/nature/difference-between-chemical-and-mechanical-weathering/ >

 

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