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昂立教育 > 托福机经 > 写作 > 2011.06预测写作【9】_090403NA

2011.06预测写作【9】_090403NA
发布时间:2013-01-11 作者:昂立 来源于:昂立外语网站

WRITING SECTION

u  Integrated writing task:

Topic discussed

an argument about the extinction of Hohokam People

Notes

Reading:

Main point: three causes why Hohokam people disappeared

Key point 1: use of highly alkaline water leads to salt deposit.

Key point 2: trees cut down by people for cooking and building houses result in extinction of animals as food supply for Hohokam people

Key point 3: invasion by Navajo Group

Lecture:

Main idea: causes for extinction challenged

Key point 1: Hohokam people know how to manage the problem: washing soil for renewing

Key point 2: Plants and animals could reproduce at a higher rate than people consumed.

Key point 3: Only remains and fragments seem not persuasive to support the conflicts between Navajo Group and Hohokam People ever happened.

 

 

Glossary

Hohokam

Hohokam (hə-hō'kəm) is one of the four major prehistoric archaeological Oasisamerica traditions of what is now the American Southwest. Many local residents put the accent on the first syllable (ho'-ho-kahm). Variant spellings in current, official usage include Hobokam, Huhugam and Huhukam. The culture was differentiated from others in the region in the 1930s by archaeologist Harold S. Gladwin, who applied the existing O'odham term, to classify the remains he was excavating in the Lower Gila Valley. According to the U.S. National Park Service Website, Hohokam is a Pima (O'odham) word used by archaeologists to identify a group of people that lived in the Sonoran Desert of North America.

According to local oral tradition, the Hohokam may be the ancestors of the historic Akimel O'odham and Tohono O'odham peoples in Southern Arizona. Recent work among the Sobaipuri, ancient ancestors of the modern Pima, indicates that Pima groups were present in this region at the end of the Hohokam sequence.

 

Navajo People

The Navajo of the Southwestern United States are the second largest Native American tribe of the United States of America. In the 2000 U.S. census, 298,197 people claimed to be fully or partly of Navajo ancestry. The Navajo Nation constitutes an independent governmental body which manages the Navajo Indian reservation in the Four Corners area of the United States. The Navajo language is spoken throughout the region, although most Navajo speak English as well.

 

alkaline

Something that is alkaline contains an alkali or has a pH value of more than 7.

Sample writing

Both the reading passage and the lecture focus on the extinction of Hohokam people. The author of the passage gives three causes while the lecturer takes a stand of opposing them.

 

The first cause mentioned by the author is the use of highly alkaline water which may lead to salt deposit. Hokokam people, according to the author weren’t able to gain enough food from such spoiled soil, which directly resulted in their extinction. The lecturer, on the other hand, refutes this point by stating that the Hokokam people actually knew how to manage the problem in terms of washing soil for renewing. After all, they had been utilizing the soil for agriculture for approximately 1000 years. How come the soil was damaged overnight?

 

The second cause stated by the author is deforestation. Thousands of hundreds of trees cut down by Hokokam people for cooking and building houses resulted in the extinction of animals as the main food supply for Hokokam people. The lecturer casts doubt on this point by claiming that animals could reproduce at a higher rate than people consumed.

 

The last cause put forward by the author is the invasion by Navajo Groups, which can be speculated from the remains or broken structures available now. The lecturer, who admits the existence of structures used to protect military troops, claims that only remains and fragments are not persuasive enough to support that the conflicts ever happened, not to mention the invasion took the responsibility for the extinction of Hokokam people.

 

To sum up, the author contends that salt deposit, deforestation and the invasion cause the extinction of Hokokam people. The lecturer, on the other hand, believes all of these causes are not convincing enough.

 (285 words)

 

  Independent writing task:

Essay question

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The best way to improve the quality of education is to increase teachers’ salaries.  Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.

话题提示

本题目关于教师收入的问题,OG上第97题。曾经出现的考题有:

09228大陆考题,独立写作Do you agree or disagree: Teachers should be paid at least as much as doctors, lawyers or business leaders are paid.

0988大陆考题,独立写作Agree or disagree: Teachers should be paid according to how their students perform

Brainstorming

Pros of “increase teachers’ salaries”

  improve teachers’ standard of living thus teachers can focus completely on their teaching

  teachers can have easy access to teaching materials which might be expensive

  increased salary could be an incentive for teachers to improve work efficiency

  inspire the desire to be a good teacher thus promote healthy competition   

cons of “increase teachers’ salaries”

  teachers become materialistic and calculating

  other important ways to improve the quality of education might be neglected: better learning surroundings, reasonable course arrangement, better cooperation between teachers and parents

  teachers need more than an increased income, an opportunity of further study, communication among colleagues, easy access to more education materials are sometimes a more inspiring incentive to teachers

Words and Expressions

paycheck

especially AmE the amount of wages someone earns

 

nurture

If you nurture something such as a young child or a young plant, you care for it while it is growing and developing. (FORMAL)
Parents want to know the best way to nurture and raise their child to adulthood...
The modern conservatory is not an environment for nurturing plants.

 

rational

Rational decisions and thoughts are based on reason rather than on emotion.
He's asking you to look at both sides of the case and come to a rational decision...

 

distract

If something distracts you or your attention from something, it takes your attention away from it.
Tom admits that playing video games sometimes distracts him from his homework...
Don't let yourself be distracted by fashionable theories...
A disturbance in the street distracted my attention.

 

recognition

When a person receives recognition for the things that they have done, people acknowledge the value or skill of their work.
At last, her father's work has received popular recognition...

 

deem

If something is deemed to have a particular quality or to do a particular thing, it is considered to have that quality or do that thing. (FORMAL)
French and German were deemed essential...
He says he would support the use of force if the UN deemed it necessary...

 

Correspondingly

caused by or connected with something you have already mentioned
eg: The war, and the corresponding fall in trade, have had a devastating effect on the country.

Sample writing on a similar topic

As is recognized by most people, teachers have the most important job in all of society. They raise our children to be forward-thinking and bright individuals. They ensure that children understand the books, learn certain social skills such as how to get along with each other or how to work together as a team. As such, being a teacher typically means a stable paycheck. Some people propose that teachers should be paid at least as much as doctors, lawyers or business leaders are paid. I believe this proposal is highly recommendable.

 

For a start, teachers devote their lives to nurture our next generation, thus deserving a rational pay to ensure their basic life. Education of our children is one of the most vital tasks for society. Now that teachers shoulder this great responsibility and dedicate their lives to it, they deserve to be rewarded with a decent pay. On the other hand, if teachers live with a tight budget, they might do some other part-time jobs to make ends meet, which will distract them from their teaching work.

 

Furthermore, teachers’ work is no less tiring and detailed as that of doctors, lawyers, or business leaders. Teachers are not only required to prepare lessons and teach knowledge, but also offer spiritual and moral guidance to students. Their teaching and management roles are as important as those of other indispensible professions in society.

 

Last but not least, a respect and recognition of teachers in terms of money deliver the information to society that education is greatly deemed by the government. When a teacher is paid as much as doctors, lawyers, or business leaders, the public know that education is considered as essential as medicine, law and commerce. Correspondingly, people will also pay great attention to education and are willing to make their devotion to the field.

 

To sum up, teachers deserve an equal pay as the other essential professions in society, and the social attention on education will be handed down generation after generation.

 

(332 words)

 

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