昂立教育 > 托福机经 > 写作 > 2011.06预测写作【12】_100312NA

发布时间:2013-01-11 作者:昂立 来源于:昂立外语网站


u  Integrated writing task:

Topic discussed

Congestion pricing



Main point: the adoption of congestion pricing in a particular area to reduce congestion

Key point 1: time-saving

Key point 2: to improve that area’s environment

Key point 3: road pricing charged as revenue on infrastructure


Main idea: not in favor of the practice

Key point 1: drivers reluctant to pay are obliged to make a detour—a waste of time. E.g. a courier

Key point 2: the environment of the particular area would be better. But the envrionment outside of it must be worsened because of increasing noise and air pollution. The environment of the city as a whole can’t be better.

Key point 3: some commuters who couldn’t afford the fee have to travel by subway. Better transit system costs the government more funding. The mere amount does little to relieve the financial burden.


congestion pricing


mass-transit system  

public transport,公共交通系统,包括民航、铁路、公路、水运等。改善大众运输系统是当前的热议话题。

transport  n. & v.

交通运输。如[transport facilities]交通设施。做动词时可表引人入胜,如电影《黑天鹅》中的台词[You all had had the chance and the privilege to be enchanted, transported and sometimes even devastated by the performances of the artist of our company.]

infrastructure  n.

基础设施。是指为社会生产和居民生活提供公共服务的物质工程设施,它是社会赖以生存发展的一般物质条件。“基础设施”不仅包括公路铁路机场通讯、水电煤气等公共设施,即俗称的基础建设,而且包括教育、科技、医疗卫生体育文化等社会事业即“社会性基础设施”。 西元前1世纪的罗马水道证明当时已有基础建设的公共观念。基础设施具体包括硬件(hard infrastructure):交通(transportation infrastructure)、能源供应(energy infrastructure)、给排水(water management infrastructure)、邮电通讯(communications infrastructure)、环卫(solid waste management);软件(soft infrastructure):机构性基建(institutional infrastructure)、工业基建(industrial infrastructure)、社会性基建(social infrastructure)、文娱体育(cultural, sports and recreational infrastructure)。


carbon emission


greenhouse gas

温室气体。温室气体指的是大气中能吸收地面反射的太阳辐射,并重新发射辐射的一些气体,如水蒸气、二氧化碳、大部分制冷剂等。它们的作用是使地球表面变得更暖,类似于温室截留太阳辐射,并加热温室内空气的作用。这种温室气体使地球变得更温暖的影响称为“温室效应”。水汽(H2O)、二氧化碳(CO2)、氧化亚氮 (N2O)、甲烷(CH4)和臭氧(O3)地球大气中主要的温室气体。

revenue  n.

通常指政府或企业收入,如[government revenue]。政府收入通常来自税收(taxation)与非税收收入(non-tax revenue),包括国有企业收入、主权财富基金等。


commute  v. & n.

两点穿梭,常用以描述上班族。如[Annoyed commuters could only watch as the departure time ticked by.]

livability  n.

适宜居住程度。2011年全球最适宜居住的十大城市(World’s most livable cities):温哥华(Vancouver)、墨尔本(Melbourne)、维也纳(Vienna)、多伦多(Toronto)、卡尔加里(Calgary)、赫尔辛基(Helsinki)、悉尼(Sydney)、伯斯(Perth)、阿德莱德(Adelaide)、奥克兰(Auckland)。其中澳大利亚占四座城,加拿大占三座。评比的标准包括安全(safety/crime),国际化程度(international connectivity),气候日照(climate/sunshine),建筑物质量(quality of architecture),公共交通(public transportation),包容度(tolerance),环境问题(environmental issues and access to nature),城市设计(urban design),商务环境(business conditions),积极政策(proactive policy developments),医疗体系(medical care)。

cordon  n.


viable  adj.

切实可行。如[a viable program of economic assistance]

postulate  v.

假定假设。如[Freud postulated that we all have a death instinct as well as a life instinct.]

Sample writing

Both the reading passage and the lecture focus on the adoption of congestion pricing, a system of charging users of a transport network in downtown area during peak hours to reduce traffic congestion. The author of the reading passage is in strong favor of the practice while the lecturer takes a pretty strong stand of opposing it.


The first advantage mentioned by the author to advocate the practice is time-saving. With the significantly reduced traffic in the particular area, commuting has become even more efficient and pleasant. On the other hand, the lecturer refutes the point by saying this is actually a waste of time, since most drivers who are reluctant to pay are obliged to make a detour. He cites an example of a courier to make his point. A courier who intends to avoid fees would definitely choose to skirt the area. With a longer route, the delivery has to be delayed due to the adoption of congestion pricing.


The second advantage the author talks about of congestion charge is the improvements it brings to the local environment. With fewer cars, a lower level of carbon emissions can be expected than before. The speaker, who admits the environment in the charged area is enjoying some improvements, indicates the environment outside of it has been worsened because of an increasing number of cars, hence undesirable noise and air pollution. The overall envionment of the city is consequently going through some unpleasant changes.


The third advantage mentioned by the author is to boost revenue considerably, which can be used to improve infrastucture. The speaker casts doubt on this by saying that to improve mass trasit system costs prohibitive amount of fundings that road pricing can never afford.


To sum up, the author and the lecturer talk about the adoption of congestion pricing though, they take divergent stands. The author is positive about the policy and believe it brings the city a long list of advantages while the speaker votes against it due to the disadvantages and potential risks it may cause.


(341 words)

Supplementary readings

Congestion pricing or congestion charges

A system of surcharging users of a transport network in periods of peak demand to reduce traffic congestion. Examples include some toll-like road pricing fees, and higher peak charges for utilities, public transport and slots in canals and airports. This variable pricing strategy regulates demand, making it possible to manage congestion without increasing supply. Market economics theory, which encompasses the congestion pricing concept, postulates that users will be forced to pay for the negative externalities they create, making them conscious of the costs they impose upon each other when consuming during the peak demand, and more aware of their impact on the environment.

The application on urban roads is limited to a small number of cities, including London, Stockholm, Singapore, and Milan, as well as a few smaller towns. Four general types of systems are in use; a cordon area around a city center, with charges for passing the cordon line; area wide congestion pricing, which charges for being inside an area; a city center toll ring, with toll collection surrounding the city; and corridor or single facility congestion pricing, where access to a lane or a facility is priced.

Implementation of congestion pricing has reduced congestion in urban areas, but has also sparked criticism and public discontent. Critics maintain that congestion pricing is not equitable, places an economic burden on neighboring communities, has a negative effect on retail businesses and on economic activity in general, and is just another tax.

A survey of economic literature on the subject, however, finds that most economists agree that some form of road pricing to reduce congestion is economically viable, although there is disagreement on what form road pricing should take. They primarily argue that recent advances in technology have significantly reduced the previously high transaction costs of toll collection. Fuel taxes are not effective in reducing highway congestion, and tolls are the direct method. Also, concerns regarding fossil fuel supply and urban transport high emissions of greenhouse gases in the context of climate change have renewed interest in congestion pricing, as it is considered one of the demand-side mechanisms that may reduce oil consumption.

(Source: )


u  Independent writing task:

Essay question

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? If children want to do well in school, parents should limit the hours of watching TV programs or movies. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.


Pros of watching TV

þ  To broaden horizon

þ  To connect to the outside world

þ  To acquire knowledge in a relaxing and interesting way

þ  To provide parents with an economical way of babysitting

Cons of watching TV

ý  To undermine family bonding

ý  To lessen children’s ability to search information for their own

ý  Time killer

ý  To expose to a pool of unselected information

ý  To harm eyes


Words & expressions

superfluous  adj.

过多,过剩。如[to clear off all the superfluous stuff on his desk to make room for the new computer]

to broaden horizon


to widen mindset


to stay connected to the outside world


soap opera








mature  v. & adj.

成熟。如[She was a mature lady with dyed ginger hair.] [Unlike wine, brandy matures only in wood, not glass.]

parental guidance


Sample writing

With the advancement of technology, the greatest difference between children now and in the past is that children now enjoy more luxurious usage of newly invented technologies. Nowadays, children virtually superfluously spend their after-school life on watching television programs, playing computer games and Internet chatting apart from completing their necessary homework. Though it is well debatable on if it is good or bad for children to watch television, however, I do think that watching appropriate amount of television programs is good for the development of a child.


First of all, television programs provide an extensive amount of information and knowledge for children to learn on their own. It is a well-known fact that, with audio and visual aid in a learning process, a child will pick up knowledge more easily rather than broadly absorbing whatever his teacher regardless of his interests delivers. For instance, the Discovery Channel provides services of introductions to science and technology in a very comprehensive manner. In fact, TV programs provided by this channel convey knowledge by giving many detailed examples from the actual world, instead of producing the theoretical models. Watching television programs of this kind does no harm to the children, but in fact, provides more comprehensive education to them.


Furthermore, watching television widens a child’s mindset. In order for a child to grow into a matured adult, he needs to have an astute brain to adapt to the society. Television programs provide a lot of up-to-date news and information on current affairs. By watching television, one is able to receive information in a relatively shorter period of time. Empirically, a better-informed child is more likely to mature earlier than his peers. This also enables him to gain experiences for his future work as a member of the society.


However, in order for a child to grow in the right direction, appropriate programs have to be selected for him to watch. Otherwise, he may end up watching programs that may misguide him in this global world. This may be very dangerous to the physical and mental health of a child, as a little bit of misbehavior may cause great harm to the child. A good example is a TV drama series where a princess demonstrated some dangerous actions to the audience. Unfortunately, most audience of this series is children. Due to this lack of mature mindset and appropriate parental guidance, they ended up having followed the action of the actors, and getting themselves into serious injuries, and some even died. Hence, it is inevitable to see that watching television programs without appropriate guidance from parents may result in serious troubles for children.


The advancement of technology has allowed children now to have a more enjoyable life compared to their parents. At the same time, children are able to pick up knowledge from TV programs. However, parents need to pay close attention to the programs that their children watch and the hours that they watch, so that their children will grow up healthy.

(498 words)





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