u Integrated writing task:
an argument about people’s yawning
Main point: three reasons for yawning
Key point 1: while the blood is lacking oxygen, people would probably want to yawn.
Key point 2: when women are pregnant, mothers would release a kind of chemical and because of this, babies have to protect themselves by yawning.(reflex behavior)
Key point 3: yawning is a good behavior. to cool blood flowing in the brain
Main idea: reasons for yawning challenged
Key point 1: according to the reading, the theory should be that while the blood is not lacking oxygen, people will not yawn any more. however the truth is opposite.
Key point 2: there are a lot of behaviors when babies are in their mothers’ stomachs. However other behaviors disappeared when babies grow up.
Key point 3: according to the passage, while people are living in cold conditions, they will not yawn. But the truth is that no matter people are living in a hot or cold environment, people still yawn.
v. 打哈欠to open your mouth wide and breathe in deeply because you are tired or bored.
[医] 反射行为, 指婴儿出生时具有的各种反射行为（reflex behavior），例如探索反射（rooting reflex）、抓取反射（grasping reflex）等。
pregnant adj. 怀孕的
Both the reading passage and the lecture focus on yawning. The reading passage puts forward three possible reasons for yawning while the lecturer holds the opposite view, challenging the arguments in the reading passage.
The first point mentioned by the author is that yawning could probably increase the level of oxygen in blood. The lack of oxygen will result in yawning. However, the lecturer refutes this by saying that according to the author’s opinion, people would not yawn any more when their oxygen level was balanced. He also gives an example that in real life people who take in pure oxygen still yawn.
Second, the reading passage states that yawning may be the unborn-babies’ reflex behaviors by which they could get rid of a certain kind of liquid in their lungs. The lecturer casts doubt on this idea. He argues that reflex behaviors would gradually disappear as babies grow up. But adults still yawn.
Third, the reading passage points out that yawning could cool blood flowing into the brain. However, in the listening passage, the speaker disagrees with this idea by saying that if the author’s view is true, then people in tropic areas are prone to yawn more often. But there is no convincing evidence to show the connection between yawning and weather.
To sum up, the author of the reading passage indicates three possible reasons why people yawn. The lecturer, on the other hand, believes all of these are not convincing enough.
Why do we yawn?
Almost everyone yawns when they feel sleepy. So do most animals. But we don't completely understand why people and animals for that matter, yawn.
It's widely assumed that yawning occurs because we are tired or bored or because we see someone else doing it, but there isn't any hard evidence to support these beliefs.
Scientists do not purport to know all of the biological mechanisms of the yawn, but tend to agree that a yawn is an involuntary respiratory reflex, which regulates the carbon dioxide and oxygen levels in the blood.
Technically, a yawn is the reflex opening of the mouth followed by the deep inhalation and slow exhalation of oxygen.
The very act of yawning is but one of a number of involuntary reflexes controlled by the spinal and nerve centers.
Scientists speculate that the onset of a yawn is triggered either by fatigue, or by sheer boredom as, at those times, breathing is shallow, and little oxygen is carried to the lungs by the oxygen-toting cardiovascular system.
When one yawns, his or her alertness is heightened, as the sudden intake of oxygen increases the heart rate, rids the lungs and the bloodstream of the carbon dioxide buildup, and forces oxygen through blood vessels in the brain, while restoring normal breathing and ventilating the lungs.
This quite plausible theory of yawning falls short of explaining many aspects of yawning. Scientists explain away the "contagious" nature of yawning, that is when one person's yawn triggers another nearby to yawn, as due to the power of suggestion, but are at a loss when attempting to explain why yawning occurs excessively in patients with lower brainstem damage or with multiple sclerosis.
Other unlocked mysteries include why fetuses in the womb yawn, when it is a well-known fact that they do not intake oxygen into their lungs until after live birth, or why individuals with high concentrations of oxygen in their blood streams yawn.
Until these questions are answered, do not assume that a person who yawns in your presence is bored with what you are saying, or suffers from exhaustion. Simply be pleased that he or she is not bored to death.
u Independent writing task:
Some people think that children should only play sports for fun while other people think that children should play sports for competition or contests. What’s your opinion? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.
Pros & cons of “just for fun”
þ happy childhood
þ no pressure
ý might be boring
ý without supervision→safety concern
ý no sense of achievement
Pros & cons of “for competition or contests”
þ make sports more interesting and attractive
þ develop the sense of competition
þ raise the awareness of teams
Words & expressions
1 [VERB] V n, V that, V -ing
When you deny something, you state that it is not true.
She denied both accusations...
The government has denied that there was a plot to assassinate the president...
They all denied ever having seen her.
2 [VERB] V n n, V pron-refl n
If you deny someone something that they need or want, you refuse to let them have it.
If he is unlucky, he may find that his ex-partner denies him access to his children...
Don't deny yourself pleasure...
Competitive is used to describe situations or activities in which people or firms compete with each other.
Only by keeping down costs will America maintain its competitive advantage over other countries...
Japan is a highly competitive market system...
Universities are very competitive for the best students.
● competitively [ADV] ADV after v
He's now back up on the slopes again, skiing competitively in events for the disabled.
A competitive person is eager to be more successful than other people.
He has always been ambitious and fiercely competitive...
I'm a very competitive person and I was determined not be beaten.
● competitively [ADV] ADV after v
They worked hard together, competitively and under pressure.
● competitiveness [N-UNCOUNT]
I can't stand the pace, I suppose, and the competitiveness, and the unfriendliness.
Goods or services that are at a competitive price or rate are likely to be bought, because they are less expensive than other goods of the same kind.
Only those homes offered for sale at competitive prices will secure interest from serious purchasers.
Something bad that is relentless never stops or never becomes less intense.
The pressure now was relentless.
● relentlessly [ADV]
The sun is beating down relentlessly.
Someone who is relentless is determined to do something and refuses to give up, even if what they are doing is unpleasant or cruel.
Relentless in his pursuit of quality, his technical ability was remarkable...
● relentlessly [ADV]
She always questioned me relentlessly.
1 [N-COUNT] usu with supp, oft N of n
The consequences of something are the results or effects of it.
Her lawyer said she understood the consequences of her actions and was prepared to go to jail...
An economic crisis may have tremendous consequences for our global security.
2 [PHRASE] PHR with cl/group
If one thing happens and then another thing happens in consequence or as a consequence, the second thing happens as a result of the first.
His death was totally unexpected and, in consequence, no plans had been made for his replacement...
...people who are suffering and dying as a consequence of cigarette smoking...
3 [PHRASE] oft with brd-neg, n PHR, v-link PHR
Something or someone of consequence is important or valuable. If something or someone is of no consequence, or of little consequence, they are not important or valuable. (FORMAL)
As an overseer, he suddenly found himself a person of consequence...
Where he is from is of no consequence to me.
to start doing something, or become involved in a situation
Sally stepped into the role of team leader
A dilemma is a difficult situation in which you have to choose between two or more alternatives.
He was faced with the dilemma of whether or not to return to his country...
to talk about something in a way that makes it seem more important, serious etc than it really is
To say that all motorists speed in residential areas is overstating the case.
The importance of a child's early years cannot be overstated (=is very important) .
Sample writing on a similar topic
The statement in the direction is a long-term consideraion of many people including me. Many people will argue that playing a game is only fun when you win. I, however, after thinking about it on many occasions, decide to stand up against this view for the following reasons.
The first and the most important reason for my opposing the idea is that playing a game, no matter you win or lose, helps release a person from the heavy pressure, in most cases, resulted from intellectual activities. There is no better example than myself when I was trying so hard to enter the university. At that time, when I was too exhausted to memorize any single incident in the history book, a play of badminton would refill me with fresh energy to go back to my studies, though I hardly won any of these badminton games as my partner is an excellent player. Therefore, the biggest advantage of playing games lies in the fact that it helps people relaxed.
Another reason for my disagreement is that one will find out his or her capacity of making progress while playing a game. When learning a new gameyou're your opponent is a more mature player than you are, it is for sure that you will not win him or her at the beginning, but in the process of the game, if you are a conscientious player, you will definitely learn to grasp the basic skills of a certain game, which enable you to play better and better. Consequently, the awareness of your ability in learning new things is the best award you can find in game playing.
Therefore, I will conclude by saying that playing a game itself is worthwhile and to win or not to win is not a matter to concern since you could get rid of the feeling of exhaustion and confirm your confidence as a learning-capable being.