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昂立教育 > 托福机经 > 阅读 > 2011.06预测阅读【7】_090807NA

2011.06预测阅读【7】_090807NA
发布时间:2013-01-11 作者:昂立 来源于:昂立外语网站

READING SECTION

 

Passage 1

Topic

小孩的认知能力                心理学/人类学

Mindmap

 

Glossary

cognitive  adj.

认知的

neuron   n.

神经细胞;神经元

cortex  n.

   皮层

experimentation  n.

实验,试验 

egocentrism    n.

自我中心主义

symbolic thinking

   象征性思维

sensorimotor   adj.

感觉运动的;属于、关于或组成感觉和运动的功能的;

concept attainment 

   概念获得

hands-on activities

   亲身体验

mediational strategies

   中介物策略。中介物是指连接刺激和回应的某种提示或暗示。

paired associates

   配对法配对学习法是指将一些概念、思想或词语联系起来学习。然后配之以重复练习加强记忆。

motivation

   动力

Supplementary

reading

Cognitive Development

The association areas of the brain are the last to develop (recall that one of the main causes of brain growth after birth is making new connections between already existing neurons), so human's cognitive ability lags behind their physical ability. Cognitive growth is driven by the desire to understand the world around us.

The main theorist regarding cognitive development is Jean Piaget. A Swiss, Piaget got his PhD at 21, which is about the age that most people now get their BA. He worked in Paris at Alfred Binet's laboratory school, where the first tests of intellectual ability were developed. Piaget was intrigued at how children answered questions incorrectly, as the mistakes that they made seemed to be consistently different from (the correct) adult responses. He made careful studies of his own children, and he expanded those studies to larger groups of kids. Piaget was only discovered by North Americans in the 1960s, when some of his work was first translated into English. However, he had been a big name in European psychology since the 1930s.

Piaget suggested that people create schemas, which are mental models of how the world works. Piagets postulated two general processes that governed schema change:

  Assimilation, which is putting new things into old schemas

 Accommodation, which is modifying existing schemas to fit new experiences

Piaget theorized that there are 4 stages of human cognitive development. He suggested that the stages occur in an invariant developmental sequence. However, he also suggested that the exact ages that each child will pass from one stage to the next can vary.

Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years)

According to Piaget, the first responses that infants make in the world occur by chance, so infants discover the reponses that they can perform by chance.

It is only between 8 and 12 months that infants begin to make intentional actions; here problem solving behavior first appears, and the child will perform actions as a means to an end.

Shortly after this period, children will begin experimenting with new ways of doing things that will satisfy their curiousity.

The result of that experimentation will be that children develop an ability for inner experimentation, where they can perform an activity in their head before doing it in the world.

Imitation ability beings during this stage as well, and by the end of the sensorimotor stage (18-24 months), children can perform deferred imitation, where the child imitates an actor seen sometime earlier.

Others have suggested that the ability to perform deferred imitation appears earlier. There is evidence that 14 month olds can imitate the actions of live models as much as a week after seeing them.

Object permanence is also a part of the sensorimotor stage. Object permanence is the idea that an object is permanently in the world, even if it is removed from view. Infants start out believing that objects placed out of sight are out of existence, and gradually acquire the belief that out of sight does not mean out of this world.

Recently, the time when children develop object permanence beliefs has been questioned - by studies such as the one involving the car and ramp - as well as other beliefs regarding what Piaget suggested developed during his sensorimotor stage of development.

One suggestion as to why Piaget got the timing of abilities wrong is that he relied too much on motor responses as evidence of knowledge, and much of the evidence inconsistent with his beliefs is purely perceptual learning without much (if any) motor responses.

Preoperational (2 years to 6 years)

Infants start life as egocentrics, as they are unable to think of another person's point of view. This egocentrism can explain why children may appear selfish, as they are unable to think of others viewpoint. The notion of egocentrism is related to the idea of whether children can think symbolically. That is, when can a child imagine the other person as another agent in the world, or symbolically think of the other person's actions?

Conservation is another notion that children must learn. Initially, they judge objects on their size rather than content, so changes in the shape of a container will affect their judgment of which is bigger rather than the actual volume. Examples: beads in a row, balls of play-doh, tiles filling up a square.

Related to the conservation idea, children also do not always distinguish between appearance and reality during this period. The appearance/reality distinction refers to the ability to keep the true properties of an object in mind even when the appearance of the object changes. The cat/dog example with 3 year old and 6 year olds.

Concrete Operations (7 years to 12 years)

Piaget proposed that children being thinking mentally during this stage. That is, symbolic thinking begins during this stage. For example, given concrete materials, children begin to understand that materials don't change quantity when they change shape. Piaget thought that children in this stage could do many abstract mental operations on objects that were physically present, but that they couldn't reason about objects that were not physically present, such as the Xs, Ys, and Zs used in algebra.

However, children seem to develop symbolic thinking earlier than Piaget proposed. Judy DeLoache at the University of Illinois did the Snoopy studies, where 2 year olds were asked to find a big Snoopy doll in a big room after being shown tiny Snoopy in a tiny room; they couldn't find the toy. However, 3 year olds will immediately find the big Snoopy doll.

Formal Operations (12 years onward)

Here children begin to be able to reason formally and abstractly, and can do so with purely abstract and symbolic things.

One problem that highlights the differences between children who are have not reached this stage and children who have is attempting to figure out why a pendulum swings faster or slower. There cause could be either the weight of the pendulum, its initial starting force, or the length of the string it is on. Children who are not yet in the formal operations stage will vary more than one of these factors, which make accurate conclusions difficult, but children in the formal operations stage will vary only one factor at a time - holding the others constant - to examine exactly the effect of each factor on the pendulum's motion.

Reasoning such as that necessary to answer the pendulum problem is known as hypothetical-deductive reasoning, and it is a general method that can be applied to systematically solve any problem. Some people have suggested that this type of reasoning is used in science.

 

Passage 2

Topic

New England的殖民史              历史

Mindmap

 

 

Glossary

Anglican Church

英国国教。英国在宗教改革中建立的民族教会。也称英格兰圣公会或安立甘教会。英国17世纪经历了很多战争、斗争,国王与国会之间的斗争。英国16世纪亨利八世,因为不满意教皇不批准他和他的西班牙妻子离婚,因为她没有生育,英国王位的继承权可能旁落到其对手西班牙王室的手中,所以在英国发起宗教改革,英国教会脱离罗马教会,成为英国的安立甘宗,英国国王把自己封为教会的最高领导人。

Puritan   n.

教徒, 是指要求清除英国国教会中天主教残余的改革派。清教徒信奉加尔文主义,认为《圣经》才是唯一最高权威,任何教会或个人都不能成为传统权威的解释者和维护者的基督徒。清教先驱者产生于玛丽一世统治后期,流亡于欧洲大陆的英国新教团体中。及后,部分移居至美洲。

pilgrim   n.

    朝圣者

Mayflower

   五月花号,1620年一艘从英格兰的普利茅斯前往美洲新大陆马萨诸塞的普利茅斯殖民地的搭载清教徒的客船。

The Plymouth colony

普利茅斯殖民地,是英国1620年至1691年间在北美的殖民地。拓垦者在普利茅斯殖民地的第一个定居点是先前由约翰·史密斯上尉勘测、命名的新普利茅斯,即今日马萨诸塞州普利茅斯。它后来成为殖民首都,全盛时期几乎占领了现今马萨诸塞州东南部的所有土地。

普利茅斯殖民地由一群分离主义者和英国国教徒,即后来合称的清教徒前辈移民所兴建,和维吉尼亚州詹姆斯镇一样,都属英国在北美洲最早成功建立的殖民地,也是新英格兰规模最大、历史最悠久的英国拓垦地。殖民地最终在1691年被马萨诸塞州湾殖民地并吞。

antinomian   n.

反律法主义信徒

separatist    n.

    分离主义者

Supplementary reading

The New England Colonies

The founders of the New England colonies had an entirely different mission from the Jamestown settlers. Although economic prosperity was still a goal of the New England settlers, their true goal was spiritual. Fed up with the ceremonial Church of England, Pilgrims and Puritans sought to recreate society in the manner they believed God truly intended it to be designed.

Religious strife reached a peak in England in the 1500s. When Henry VIII broke with the Catholic Church of Rome, spiritual life in England was turned on its ear. The new church under the king's leadership was approved by the English Parliament, but not all the people in England were willing to accept the Church of England. At first, the battles were waged between English Catholics and the followers of the new Church — the Anglicans. The rule of Queen Elizabeth brought an end to bloodshed, but the battle waged on in the hearts of the English people.

Pilgrims and Puritans both believed in the teachings of John Calvin. According to Calvin, neither the teachings of the Catholic nor the Anglican Churches addressed God's will. By the end of Elizabeth's reign, England was a nation of many different faiths.

The Sturt Family, who ascended to the throne after the demise of Elizabeth, made matters worse for the followers of John Calvin. King James and his son Charles supported the Church of England, but secretly admired the ceremonies of the Catholic Church. To these kings, Calvin was a heretic, a man whose soul was doomed for his religious views.

The Pilgrims, called the Separatists in England because of their desire to separate from the Anglican Church, were persecuted by agents of the throne.

The Puritans, so named for their desire to purify the Church of England, experienced the same degree of harassment. By the second and third decades of the 1600s, each group decided that England was no place to put their controversial beliefs into practice.

Where else but in the New World could such a golden opportunity be found? The land was unspoiled. Children could be raised without the corruption of old English religious ideas. The chance to create a perfect society was there for the taking. The Stuart kings saw America a means to get rid of troublemakers. Everything was falling into place.

By 1620, the seeds for a new society, quite different from the one already established at Jamestown, were planted deeply within the souls of a few brave pioneers. Their quest would form the basis of New England society.

 

Passage 3

Topic

农耕的产生                 农业/历史

Mindmap

 

 

Glossary

Hunting-gather

狩猎采集, 是指一种通过猎捕食物和直接采摘可食用果实的生存技能,而不太靠驯养或农业的生存状态。狩猎采集可能是人类出现以来到旧石器时代为止唯一的生存技能。

农业大概在12000年前在两河流域、亚洲及中美洲、安第斯地区出现。从那时开始农业渐渐开始扩张取代狩猎采集者。

subsistence  n.

生存;生计

incipient   adj.

刚开始的;早期的 

archaic  adj.

古代的

Neolithic Revolution

   新石器革命,是指农业及畜牧出现,人类由旧石器之寄生者变成新石器之生产者,开始制造和使用磨制石器;发明了陶器;出现了农业和养畜业。进入新石器时代之后,生产力大大提高,人类由食物的采集者变为了食物的生产者。采集、狩猎是一种居无定所的流浪生活,而种植、畜牧则是一种定居生活,因此古村落也就此诞生。人们也把旧石器时代向新石器时代过渡的这个阶段称之为农业革命

squash  n.

番茄类植物

avocado  n.

鳄梨

domestication  n.

驯养;驯化

excavation    n.

    挖掘;发掘

Supplementary

reading

Hunting, Gathering and Cultivation

Today, too many people are removed from nature to the point where they may have forgotten where their food comes from. That is, we have become conditioned to buying food from grocery stores or restaurants. This exhibit will share with the visitor:

Where we harvest our traditional foods from and the complete nutrition they provide

How these foods are caught, gathered, cultivated

The transition of food gathering technologies over time

The importance of healthy and intact lands and waters to sustain the harvesting of our traditional foods

Visitors are linked to the outside world through a glass corridor window on the ‘transitional ramp’.  Visitors are able to interpret the outside foliage visible from this exhibit space.

Archives

Located in the ‘Paid Access’ area of Kaay Llnagaay, the Archives will not require researchers or people visiting only the Archive area of SAH.HLIN DAAW NAAY to pay an entrance fee. There will however, be controlled access by appointment, to ensure safekeeping of the archives.

These Archives will be the result of a merge between the current archival inventories held by the Heritage Centre's stakeholders - the Haida Gwaii Museum Society and the Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve and Haida Heritage Site. The role of the Archives is to gather and safe-keep the historical documentation of Haida Gwaii and to provide a place for people to further research Haida Gwaii culture, history, and scientific findings, through written materials and audio/visual.

 

Passage 4

Topic

肝脏和葡萄糖                     生物

Mindmap

Glossary

glucose    n.

葡萄糖

concentration  n.

浓度

glycogen   n.

糖原,又名肝糖,它贮藏于肝细胞及肌细胞浆中,其形状为大小不等的颗粒。糖原不等于糖类,只是糖类的一种。糖原,是动物的糖贮存库,也可看做体内能源库。糖原的结构与支链淀粉有基本相同的结构。

glycolysis   n.

糖酵解。这一名词来源于希腊语glykos的词根,是甜的意思。lysis是分解或解开的意思。糖酵解过程被认为是生物最古老、最原始获取能量的一种方式。在自然发展过程中出现的大多数较高等的生物,虽然进化为利用有氧条件进行生物氧化获取大量的自由能,但仍保留了这种最原始的方式。

intestinal  adj.

    大肠的

portal vein

门静脉。肝门静脉的作用是主要是将小肠吸收的营养物质运送到肝脏进行解毒,是由静脉到静脉的血管。同时,通过肝门静脉,上、下腔静脉相通。

decompose   v.    decomposition  n.

分解

synthesize   v.      synthesis  n.

    合成

blood circulation

    血液循环

fatty liver

脂肪肝

carbohydrate  n.

碳水化合物

starch   n.

淀粉

lactose  n.

    乳糖

metabolism   n.

新陈代谢

plasma    n.

血浆

detoxification   n.

 解毒

hepatitis   n.

肝炎

fermentation    n.

    发酵

Supplementary

reading

How is the liver glucose metabolism

In the liver in the blood glucose concentration changes, will be automatically adjusted to maintain normal blood glucose levels.
The sugars in food into glucose, some converted into glycogen in the liver. The small intestinal absorption of glucose, liver by the portal vein arrived in liver glycogen and into storage. General adult approximately 100 grams of liver glycogen, the body when necessary, and decomposed into glycogen and glucose release into the blood, its decomposition and synthesis maintain a balance. But just enough for 100 grams of glycogen with 24 hours of fasting. Glycogen used to regulate blood glucose levels in order to maintain its stability determinants. Liver glycogen synthesis of glucose can be stored in the liver and, when labor, hunger, fever, massive consumption of glucose, liver glycogen hear cell decomposition of glucose into the blood circulation, maintaining body temperature, supply of human activities need energy.

    
The liver is an organ storage can be for glycogen synthesis of glucose, protein, vitamins and be stored. If excessive intake of human nutrition, consumption of fat can not be piled up in the liver, trigger a "fatty liver”.

 

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