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昂立教育 > 托福机经 > 阅读 > 2011.06预测阅读【14】_100312NA

2011.06预测阅读【14】_100312NA
发布时间:2013-01-11 作者:昂立 来源于:昂立外语网站

READING SECTION

 

Passage One

Topic

Bone Tools and Archaeology     历史

Mind map

Glossary

archaeology  n.

考古学。其任务在于根据古代人类通过各种活动遗留下来的物质资料,以研究人类古代社会的历史。实物资料包括各种遗迹和遗物,它们多埋没在地下,必须经过科学的调查发掘,才能被系统地、完整地揭示和收集。因此,考古学研究的基础在于田野调查发掘工作。

field work

    田野调查,融入当地人的生活并在此过程中对相关课题进行调查。

anthropology  n.

    人类学。人类学是以人作为直接研究对象,并以其为基础和综合理解为目的的学科。美剧六人行中的Ross就是人类学家(anthropologist

excavation  n.

挖掘,出土。考古学中常见的一种方法。

radiocarbon dating

使用放射性碳(碳-14)考古的方法。也可作 carbon-dating.

antler  n.

鹿角,鹿茸

skeleton  n.

    骨架,骨骼,骷髅

artifact  n.

手工艺品(亦拼作artefact

uncover  v.

    发现,发掘。近义词unearth, excavate.

Supplementary reading

Oldest American artifact unearthed

 

Archaeologists claim to have found the oldest known artefact in the Americas, a scraper-like tool in an Oregon cave that dates back 14,230 years.

 

The tool shows that people were living in North America well before the widespread Clovis culture of 12,900 to 12,400 years ago, says archaeologist Dennis Jenkins of the University of Oregon in Eugene.

 

Studies of sediment and radiocarbon dating showed the bone's age. Jenkins presented the finding late last month in a lecture at the University of Oregon.

 

His team found the tool in a rock shelter overlooking a lake in south-central Oregon, one of a series of caves near the town of Paisley.

 

Kevin Smith, the team member who uncovered the artefact, remembers the discovery. "We had bumped into a lot of extinct horse, bison and camel bone – then I heard and felt the familiar ring and feel when trowel hits bone," says Smith, now a master's student at California State University, Los Angeles. "I switched to a brush. Soon this huge bone emerged, then I saw the serrated edge. I stepped back and said: 'Hey everybody — we got something here.'"

 

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Other researchers questioned whether the cave's inhabitants would have been mainly vegetarian, as the coprolites suggested. (Editor's note: Please see the comments thread of this article for the authors of this reference weighing in on the significance of their work.) In his recent lecture Jenkins noted other evidence reflecting a diet short on meat but including edible plants such as the fern leaf biscuit root Domatium dissectum.

 

In late September, a group of archaeologists who study the peopling of the Americas met with federal officials and a representative of the local Klamath tribe to review the evidence at Paisley Caves. The specialists spent two days examining sediments, checking the tool, and assessing other plant and animal evidence.

 

"It was an impressive presentation," says David Meltzer, an archaeologist at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas, who attended the meeting. "This is clearly an important site, but there are some tests that need to be done to seal the deal." One key, he says, is to better understand how the specimens got to the cave.

 

SOURCE: www.nature.com/news/2009/091105/full/news.2009.1058.html

 

Passage Two

Topic

K.E. Consumption Comparison among Fish Swimming, Bird Flying and Human Walking   物理

Mind map

Glossary

mechanical energy

    机械能,由动能和势能组成。

kinetic energy

    动能。物体由于运动而产生的能力。速度越大,质量越大,动能越大。

velocity  n.

速度

efficiency  n.

效率,功能,功效

economy  n.

    节省,节约(注意不再是“经济”!)

locomotion  n.

    移动,运动

vertebrate  n.

脊椎动物。无脊椎动物为invertebrate

quadrupeds  n.

四肢动物

scale  v.

    测量

expend  v.

    消耗,消费

Supplementary reading

The  energy  expended  by  animals  as  they  swim through water, run on land, and fly in the air in the  different kinds of  locomotion  is  not  immediately  obvious to us. We know that a flying bird must  continuously  expend  energy  to  keep  from  falling  to  the  ground,  and that  in  water  many  animals  are  neutrally  buoyant  and  expend  little  effort to  keep  from  sinking,  but  man  has  no experience in flying under his own power  and  he  is  a  clumsy  and  ineffective swimmer.  Walking  and  running  we  know  more  about,  for  man  is our best and most cooperative  experimental  animal. Except  for  man  and  dog  running animals  have  not  received  much  attention,  and studies  of  swimming  and flying  animals  have  only  recently  been carried  out  at  a  satisfactory  level  of success.  In this  article I  shall  compare the energy  cost  of  these three kinds  of  locomotion.

 

Differences  in  the  physical  qualities of  the  media  in  which  animals  move account  for  such structural adaptations as  streamlining  of  the  body  in  flying and swimming  animals,  and the  use  of levers for  propulsion  in  running  animals. The weight of most swimming animals is fully supported by the surrounding medium, but running and flying animals must support the full weight of their bodies.

 

SOURCE: “Locomotion: Energy cost of swimming, flying and running. “

 

Passage Three

Topic

Emotion and Physical Reactions      心理学

Glossary

cognition  n.

认知。形容词为cognitive

perception  n.

知觉,感觉

conscious  n.

有知觉的,反义词unconscious

appraisal  n.

评估

endorphins  n.

内啡肽,脑内啡,是体内的一种自然镇痛药,它在维持双方长期关系方面同样起着非常关键的作用。

adrenaline  n.

肾上腺素。当人经历压力后的两秒钟内人体发生的变化。这一阶段,即所谓的惊慌阶段,人体会释放一种叫做肾上腺素的化学物质到血液中。肾上腺素给你一股强大的力量,并在体内产生许多其他的变化。 这些变化为你采取快速的行动做准备。 你的呼吸加快,运输更多的氧气到细胞中, 以便为肌肉提供更多的能量; 你的心跳加快,使流到肌肉和其他器官的血液流动加速,有更多的血液为你的胳膊和大腿所用;双眼的瞳孔放大,使你能看得更清楚。

dopamine  n.

    多巴胺。是下丘脑和脑垂体腺中的一种关键神经递质。从理论上来看,增加这种物质,就能让人兴奋,但是它会令人上瘾。帕金森病(Parkinson’s disease) 的发病原因就是因为多巴胺的分泌不足。

Supplementary reading

Cognitive Theory

 

Several theories argue that cognitive activity—in the form of judgments, evaluations, or thoughts—is necessary for an emotion to occur. This, argued by Richard Lazarus, is necessary to capture the fact that emotions are about something or have intentionality. Such cognitive activity may be conscious or unconscious and may or may not take the form of conceptual processing.

 

An influential theory here is that of Lazarus: emotion is a disturbance that occurs in the following order: 1.) Cognitive appraisal—The individual assesses the event cognitively, which cues the emotion. 2.) Physiological changes—The cognitive reaction starts biological changes such as increased heart rate or pituitary adrenal response. 3.) Action—The individual feels the emotion and chooses how to react. For example: Jenny sees a snake. 1.) Jenny cognitively assesses the snake in her presence, which triggers fear. 2.) Her heart begins to race faster. Adrenaline pumps through her blood stream. 3.) Jenny screams and runs away. Lazarus stressed that the quality and intensity of emotions are controlled through cognitive processes. These processes underlie coping strategies that form the emotional reaction by altering the relationship between the person and the environment.

 

Emotion definitions by Richard Lazarus:

Anger - a demeaning offense against me and mine.

Fear - facing an immediate, concrete, and overwhelming physical danger.

Sadness - having experienced an irrevocable loss.

Disgust - taking in or being too close to an indigestible object or idea (metaphorically speaking).

Happiness - making reasonable progress toward the realization of a goal.

 

SOURCE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion#Cognitive_theories

 

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