The term anti-Americanism, or anti-American sentiment, refers to opposition or hostility to the policies, culture, society, economics or international role of the United States. Common contemporary negative stereotypes of Americans include that Americans are: aggressive, arrogant, ignorant, overweight, sartorially challenged, obsessed with making money rather than making friends, too moralistic and obnoxious, and unnaturally fixated on personal dentition .
Sinophobia or anti-Chinese sentiment is the fear of or dislike of China, its people, overseas Chinese, or Chinese culture. It often targets Chinese minorities living outside of China and is complicated by the dilemma of immigration, development of national identity in neighboring countries, disparity of wealth, fall of the past central tribute system and majority-minority relations. Its opposite is Sinophilia.
There were at least several incidents of anti-Chinese violence in Washington, a United States territoryand later, a U.S. state, which occurred during the 19th century. Following the Rock Springs Massacre, in Wyoming, in September 1885 a wave of anti-Chinese riots and incidents occurred in Washington. There were riots and mob actions in Issaquah (then known as Squak), Seattle and Tacoma which resulted in at least four people being killed and extensive property damage.
Like China's perception in other countries, China's large population, long history and size has been the subject of fear somewhat. China has figured in the Western imagination in a number of different ways as being a very large civilization existing for many centuries with a very large population; however the weakness of China in the beginning of the modern age, rise of People's Republic of China after the Chinese Civil War has dramatically changed the perception of China from a relatively positive light to negative because of the fear of communism in the West, and repeated public accusations against China of human rights abuses.
Sinophobia became more common as China was becoming a major source of immigrants for the west (including the American West). Numerous Chinese immigrants to North America were attracted by wages offered by large railway companies in the late 19th century as the companies built the transcontinental railroads.
Sinophobic policies (such as the Chinese Exclusion Act, the Chinese Immigration Act of 1923, anti-Chinese zoning laws and restrictive covenants, the policies of Richard Seddon, and the White Australia policy) and pronouncements on the "yellow peril" were in evidence as late as the mid-20th century in the Australia, United States, Canada, and New Zealand.
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