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昂立教育 > 托福机经 > 写作 > 托福机经2013.05.18写作

托福机经2013.05.18写作
发布时间:2013-09-17 作者: 来源于:昂立外语网站

WRITING SECTION

Integrated writing task

Topic discussed: 欧洲人 亚洲人谁西安到大北美?

Notes

美国的ANDE wall是不是一种防御机制。

Reading: Reading: 不是 prehistoric defensive constructions (forts) in Andes are unusual

1. wall不是连续的,有gaps,不能达到防御的目的

in some places, walls are absent, making them vulnerable to attack;

2.wall multiple entranceways构成,而一般的防御建筑只有一个出口和入口 they have multiple entranceways, while normally other forts have 1 or 2 gates only;

3.没有walls水的地方,无法供城内抵御外 lack of space to store enough water

 

Lecture:

 gaps都是崖之,通常是容易受攻的地方

1. The places that don’t have walls because they are naturally defended by cliffs or steep mountains;

  ways是用来contact,因sitelarge area,而且些通道很窄

 Entranceways all face clear open space with great visibility, people in the forts could easily spot potential attackers, to block the gate and get prepared;

3. 人也要面食物和水短缺的问题,因为这里气候干燥

  Andes region is dry, without enough food and water for the army, they wouldn’t choose to surround the forts and wait till they surrender. If the fort could withstand the initial attack, it could survive.

Glossary

gaps 空隙

defend 防御

fort 堡垒

surrender 投降

 

 

Independent writing task

Essay question

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Government should support scientific research even if the research does not have any practical use.

【话题提示】

首段:明政府应该助基研究而不仅仅用研究。点更加convincing,可以用具体描述法引入.

  段2和段3 :分论证用研究相互的辩证关系,1.用研究必以基研究和前提,没有基研究就没有用研究。2.研究不等于不用,是检验应用研究的最有力的理依据。

  段4:用步的写作手法再次强调科研的重要性,人长远的角度来看不应该那么急功近利,唯有基科研才能推类发展的步。

  尾段:以上段落均为资助基科研的合理性,尾再从局限性的角度重申点。

Words and expressions

technique 技术

practical application 使用性的应用

utilize 使用

hone 磨炼

commercial undertaking 商业事务

 

Sample answer

Scientific research can be divided into two types: basic and applied. The purpose of basic research is to yield knowledge, while the purpose of applied research is to yield something with practical value. It may be tempting to argue that governments should only fund applied research—it is the intuitively "practical" choice—but this would be a bad idea.

  First, applied research rests upon the foundation erected by basic research. All of the knowledge and techniques used in applied research have their origins in basic research. All of the work going into understanding the larger universe, for example, currently has very little practical application—why do we need to know about celestial bodies and the like when it might be centuries before we ever travel to them? But when humankind finally devises the means to send those first interstellar explorers off into the stars, it'll be thanks to the centuries of basic research that came before. The needs of the future are difficult to forecast. Therefore we cannot rule out scientific undertakings which have no immediate practical value.

  Second, even if the results of basic research are not immediately applicable, we can at least examine how the research is conducted to hone our methodologies. That way, when scientists are conducting applied research that utilizes related concepts or methods, there will be some previous record or procedure to refer to. At the very least, the techniques pioneered in basic research should be transferrable to applied research. For example, say in the course of basic research on a certain chemical compound it is shown that they can be synthesized more efficiently using X method. The compound itself may be relatively valueless, but scientists doing applied research may look at how this more efficient process was arrived at and formalize a way to find cheaper solutions to synthesizing commercial chemicals.

  It is true that the government could be spending their money on research with more immediate practical benefits—its duty is, after all, ultimately to foster the wellbeing of its citizens, and practical research can aid in that endeavor in more concrete ways. But if the government foregoes supporting knowledge for the sake of knowledge, then who will pick up the slack? Applied research can lean on private funding, because it is by its very nature a commercial undertaking. But basic research? Aside from foundations and wealthy philanthropists with a predilection for science, there would be nobody to support the march of scientific progress. As human beings we are more than just creatures of comfort—we are also knowers, and so furthering our understanding of the world should also fall under the rubric of government responsibility.

  We cannot know where a particular line of inquiry will take us before we have arrived—otherwise, the act of inquiring would be pointless. Thus governments should at least fund basic research "just in case" a useful discovery is made. We also do not have to arrive at a useful destination to benefit from the inquisitive journey—the actual process of investigating might teach us as much as the answer we finally stumble upon. This is another reason funding for basic research should be dismissed out of hand. And last but not least, the pursuit of knowledge is a fundamentally human endeavor. The government should support if it seeks to aid in the flourishing of its citizens, because few others will step up to fill that role.

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