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2015^пڱ

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SECTION 1: LISTENING TEST(45 minutes)

Part A: Spot Dictation

Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear a passage and read the same passage with blanks in it. Fill in each of the blanks with the word or words you have heard. Write your answer in the corresponding space on your ANSWER SHEET. Remember you will hear the passage ONLY ONCE. 

Americans today have different eating habits than they had in the past. There is a wide____________(1) of food available. They have a broader knowledge of nutrition, so they buy more____________(2) than ever before. At the same time, Americans purchase increasing quantities of sweets, snacks, and sodas.

Statistics show that____________(3) determines the way they eat. American lifestyles have changed. They now include____________(4) people who live alone, single parents and children, and double-income families. These changing lifestyles____________(5) the increasing number of people who must____________ (6) or sometimes skip them altogether. Many Americans____________ (7) than ever before to spend preparing food. Partly as a consequence of this limited time, ____________ (8) of all American homes now have microwave ovens. Moreover, Americans____________ (9) nearly four times a week on the average.

It is easy to study the amounts and kinds of food____________ (10). The United States Department of Agriculture and____________ (11) compile sales statistics and keep accurate records. This information tells us not only what people are eating, but also about the changes in____________ (12). Red meat, which used to be the most popular choice for dinner, is____________ (13) an American favorite. Instead, chicken, turkey, and fish have become____________ (14). Sales of these foods have greatly increased____________ (15). This is probably a result of the awareness of the dangers of eating food that____________ (16) high levels of cholesterol, or animal fat.

According to a recent survey, Americans also change their____________ (17) to meet the needs of different situations. They have____________ (18) about which foods will increase their athletic ability, help them____________ (19), or make them alert for business meetings. Americans ____________ (20), along with their changing tastes and needs, leads them to consume a wide variety of foods. 

Part B: Listening Comprehension1. Statements

Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear several short statements. These statements will be spoken ONLY ONCE, and you will not find them written on the paper; so you must listen carefully. When you hear a statement, read the four answer choices marked (A), (B), (C) and (D) and decide which one is closest in meaning to the statement you have heard. Then mark the corresponding letter on your ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the centre.  1. (A) My father objected because I have no firm idea of what Im going to do.

(B) My father never has any good ideas about what Im going to do.

(C) My father had no idea what my plan was.

(D) I dont know what my father didnt like about my plan. 

2. (A) The bus was 45 minutes late.

(B) The bus arrived at 8:45 as scheduled.

(C) The bus wasnt late according to the schedule.

(D) The bus didnt arrive at 8:45.  

3. (A) Tom thinks it unnecessary to get a car.

(B) Tom cant afford a car because the price is high.

(C) Tom is soon going to buy a car.

(D) Tom must have a car whatever the price. 

4. (A) My parents were very hard on me when I was young.

(B) My parents did not ask me where I went after dark.

(C) I never stayed out until ten oclock at night.

(D) I wanted my parents to give me a lot of free time.

 

5. (A) It is not convenient to schedule the class as soon as possible.

(B) The class time will be made available to the majority.

(C) The schedule is not convenient for the majority.

(D) The schedule will be made known to the majority.  

6. (A) She will take the subway with her friend.

(B) Shed rather take the subway than get a ride.

(C) She is grateful to get a ride with her friend.

(D) She has plenty of time to walk to the subway station. 

7. (A) Shes old enough to look after herself.

(B) She never leaves her room in a mess.

(C) She wants to be better-looking.

(D) Shes a teenager whos often late for school.  

8. (A) I want the proposals to be original.

(B) Id rather that the proposals had been put in writing.

(C) I dont like to see their proposals in black and white.

(D) I dont want them to make any trouble in their proposals. 

9. (A) He didnt quite catch what the professor said about the final exam.

(B) He wants the teaching assistant to speak a little bit louder.

(C) He didnt hear clearly and wanted to change his seat to the front.

(D) He wants the professor to collect the final exam papers.   

10. (A) People whore married young have a greater probability of getting a divorce.  

(B) People whore married late are more likely to get a divorce.

(C) Statistics show that it is not likely for older people to get married.

(D) Statistics show that not many people choose to have an early marriage.  

2. Talks and ConversationsDirections: In this part of the test, you will hear some short talks and conversations. After each one, you will hear some questions. The talks, conversations and questions will be spoken ONLY ONCE. Now listen carefully and choose the best answer from the four choices marked (A), (B), (C) and (D). Then mark the corresponding letter on your ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the centre.  
Questions 111411. (A) Customer and salesperson.

(B) Caller and operator.

(C) Customer and bank clerk.

(D) Customer and information desk clerk.  

12. (A) He wants to open an account.

(B) He wants to know where to use 24-hour service.

(C) He wants to know how to use phone banking.

(D) He wants to know what he can do with his account. 

13. (A) Pay bills.

(B) Check the balance.

(C) Transfer money.

(D) Trade stocks and bonds. 

14. (A) 9 to 5 every day.

(B) 24 hours a day.

(C) 24 hours on weekdays.

(D) When the automated machine fails to work. 

Questions 1518

15. (A) Because they are quite popular today.

(B) Because they are important in peoples life.

(C) Because people often discuss these sites.

(D) Because they help people meet and discuss things.  

16. (A) Its popular in South Korea.

(B) Its especially loved in Brazil

(C) Its users are mostly teenagers.

(D) Its users are mainly college age people. 

17. (A) They set up their own sites.

(B) They learned how to use HTML.

(C) They used the Internet mainly for resources.

(D) They spread information to users.  

18. (A) Users regular communication.

(B) The development of IT technology.

(C) Relying on users to create content.

(D) Asking users to build the web.  

Questions 1922

19. (A) She knows for sure George can work with Anne.

(B) She wants to discuss the new marketing strategy with George.

(C) She doesnt want to change the product image.

(D) She is going to work with George instead of Anne.  

20. (A) Raising quality.

(B) Lowering price.

(C) Restructuring ideas.

(D) Expanding market share. 

21. (A) Improving branding.

(B) Keeping good quality.

(C) Marketing strategy.

(D) Changing target audience. 

22. (A) She has the afternoon off

(B) She has a prior appointment.

(C) She disagrees with Georges idea.

(D) She has to travel in the afternoon. 

Questions 232623. (A) 2006. (B) 2014.

(C) 8 years ago. (D) 50 years ago.

 24. (A) Questions about womens positive personalities.

(B) Questions on womens beliefs about the future.

(C) Questions relating womens hopes and expectations.

(D) Questions concerning womens health condition.  

25. (A) Negative emotions lead to bad health.

(B) Happy individuals always live a longer life.

(C) Optimism actually affects a persons physical health.

(D) There are links between optimistic feelings and longer life. 

26. (A) They are more likely to smoke cigarettes.

(B) They are more likely not to do any exercise.

(C) They are 23 percent more likely to die of cancer

(D) They are more likely to have high blood pressure or diabetes. 

Questions 273027. (A) Her educational background.

(B) Her career development.

(C) Her work experience.

(D) Her current job at the Wildlife Fund. 

28. (A) Two.  (B) Three.

(C) Five        (D) Seven.  

29. (A) A copy writer.

(B) A computer programmer.

(C) An editor.

(D) A researcher.  

30. (A) The woman graduated from Brown University in journalism.

(B) The new position involves a lot of travel.

(C) Computer skills are not important for the new position.

(D) The new position is based in Seattle.  

Part C: Listening and Translation1. Sentence Translation

Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear 5 sentences in English. You will hear the sentences ONLY ONCE. After you have heard each sentence, translate it into Chinese and write your version in the corresponding space on your ANSWER SHEET. 

(1) 

 

 

(2) 

 

 

(3) 

 

 

(4) 

 

 

(5) 

 

 

2. Passage TranslationDirections: In this part of the test, you will hear 2 passages in English. You will hear the passages ONLY ONCE. After you have heard each passage, translate it into Chinese and write your version in the corresponding space on your ANSWER SHEET. You may take notes while you are listening.  

(1) 

  

(2) 

 

 

SECTION 2: STUDY SKILLS(45 minutes)

Directions: In this section, you will read several passages. Each passage is followed by several questions based on its content. You are to choose ONE best answer, (A), (B), (C) or (D), to each question. Answer all the questions following each passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage and mark the corresponding letter on your ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the centre. 

Questions 15

We hold certain professions to a higher standard when it comes to the mental health of their workers, and for good reason. Doctors, police officers and pilots, for instance, have jobs that put others safety in their hands. So as evidence mounted about the psychological condition of Andreas Lubitz, co-pilot in the March 24 Germanwings plane crash, it raised important questions about how to safeguard against such tragedies.

Lufthansa, the parent company of Germanwings, says Lubitz had informed the airline of a serious depressive episode in 2009, back when he was training to be a pilot. Investigators say Lubitzs record also indicated suicidal tendencies. While its not clear why Lubitz apparently drove the plane into a mountainside in the French Alps, his case puts a spotlight on the imperfect system for screeningand supportingpilots who are depressed or suffer from other psychological conditions.

In the U.S., commercial pilots over 40 must submit to a physical and mental evaluation every six months; before age 40 its once a year. Physical health is easier to quantify than mental wellness, however. You somehow try to see if the pilot is well, and its not the easiest thing, says Dr. Alpo Vuorio, a physician at the Mehilainen Airport Health Center in Finland who has studied depression and suicide in pilots.

Most airlines have psychological-support programs for their crews; its a matter of persuading pilots to take advantage of them. Its a macho thing. You dont want to admit you need help, says Scott Shappell, a professor at Embry-Riddle Aeronautics University and a former pilot. That may be why, according to one psychiatrist who evaluates pilots for the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), only about half of the pilots who experience depression report their symptoms. Its one of the most difficult things in aviation medicine, says Vuorio.

Experts say the vast majority of depressed people pose no harm to themselves or others, and most can be successfully treatedbut stigma remains. Until 2010, the FAA had a ban on antidepressant use, making it an automatic disqualifier for pilots. After studies convinced officials such drugs dont compromise pilots alertness or mental faculties, the FAA changed its position.

The FAA and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) require commercial pilots to self-report any medical or mental-health issues, along with a list of recent doctor visits and any medications theyre taking. Still, not all pilots do. Pilots know if they self-report, it will be a black mark on their record, says Shappell. Any pilot reporting depression for the first time is automatically grounded before being re-evaluated and cleared to fly. 

1. According to the passage, some professional people like ______ have jobs that put others safety in their hands.

(A) doctors, police officers and investigators

(B) psychiatrists, police officers and experts

(C) physicians, policemen and pilots

(D) doctors, policemen and professors

 

2. It can be concluded from the passage that Andreas Lubitz ______.

(A) informed investigators of a serious depressive episode in 2009

(B) committed suicide by driving the plane into a mountainside

(C) studied depression and suicide at the Mehilainen Airport Health Center

(D) evaluated pilots for the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration 

3. In the United States, commercial pilots are evaluated for mental and physical health at least ______.

(A) every four months

(B) every other year

(C) once a year

(D) twice a year

 

4. According to the passage, which of the following statements is NOT true?

(A) The March 24 Germanwings plane crash was a great shock.

(B) Investigators say Lubitzs record indicated suicidal tendencies.

(C) The FAA requires pilots to self-report any medical or mental-health issues.

(D) Most crews welcome the airlines psychological-support programs. 

5. Which of the following can be the best title for the passage?

(A) Depression in the Flight Deck

(B) Perfect Systems for Screening Pilots

(C) Physical-support Programs for Pilots

(D) Depressed People Posing No Harm to Others 

Questions 610

Schools out, and that means a slew of pricey summer activities for kids: beach trips, movie tickets and snacks, theme park visits, birthday parties?and more. But this is the season to say no to incessant requests for mad money. Encourage your teen to get a part-time job insteadnot only will he or she have enough cash to cover expenses, but part-time work looks great on college applications?and provides great real-world experience. Plus, its important for your kids to?learn how to manage their money?sooner in life rather than later. Here are some top part-time summer jobs that dont involve babysitting or mowing the lawn.

Take Online Surveys and Write Reviews

Companies are eager for consumer?feedbackand theyre willing to pay! On sites like?Swagbucks?and MySurvey?members?complete?simple?tasks like taking surveys, writing?reviews and watching videos to redeem rewards that can be cashed out or loaded onto a gift card. Teens?can even preview up-and-coming music as reviewers on?Slice the Pie. Note: Most of these sites have a minimum age requirement?(13, 14 or?even 18 at some), so be sure to check the?FAQs before your kid signs up.

Get Crafty

If your teen has a flair for all things DIY, encourage him or her to set up shop on?Etsy?(with your supervision). There are no?membership fees, and after Etsys 3.5% cut, sellers?get?to keep all the profits via Paypal. Just note that?under-18s are barred from participating in the site's community spaces.

Be a Pet Sitter or House Sitter

While most?professional?dog and house sitting services require that their?sitters be over 18, that doesnt mean your teen isnt fit to perform those duties for a trusted neighbor or friend. Depending on where you live, your teen can expect $15 to $30 per visit, and?even more if an?overnight stay is required. Put the word out among?your friends that you have a kid eager to help out, or post on?NextDoor?to tell your neighbors about your teens availability.

Enjoy Free Entertainment at Work

Movie theaters have great basic summer job offerings, such as?usher and?concession stand worker,?with perks like free movie tickets. If you live near a?performance?venue (say,?a concert?hall or a playhouse), jobs there let teens?catch great acts while they?work! 

6. The author suggests that summer can be a cause of annoyance because ______.(A) parents fret over whom to hire to watch their kids(B) kids may hang out with bad friends(C) kids spend too much of their time playing(D) kids participate in many costly summer activities

7. A summer job offers all of the following benefits EXCEPT ______.(A) helping teenagers get first-hand experience of the world(B) making teenagers more competitive when they apply for college(C) building connections which may prove to be valuable in their later life(D) earning extra cash to finance their summer activities

8. What is the minimum age requirement for Etsys community spaces?(A) 13.(B) 14.(C) 18. (D) None.

9. If a teenager has pet sitting service to offer, one way to make it known is by ______.(A) going to the local radio station (B) posting a thread on a specialized website (C) putting a classified advertisement on the local newspaper(D) putting a notice at the community center

10. The word perks in the last paragraph can be best replaced by ______.(A) benefits(B) rights(C) bonus(D) advantages

Questions 1115

For most of my adult life, I avoided meat, cheese, butter and cream because they are high in saturated fats, which have long been thought to cause heart disease. Moreover, fats generally are supposed to, well, make you fat. So, like many Americans, I minimized these foods while loading up on vegetables, fruits and grains instead. And, like many Americans, I wasn't getting thinner. Despite rigorous daily jogging and biking, I continually struggled with an extra 10 pounds.

Then, about a decade ago, I took a side job reviewing restaurants for a small local paper in Manhattan. Because the outlet didn't pay for meals, I had to accept whatever free dishes the chefs served me. This turned out not to be the chicken breasts and stir-fried veggies I was accustomed to eating but rather red meats and every kind of luscious cheese. I found these dishes of fat-laden food rich, earthy, delicious andto my surpriseslimming. After two months, I effortlessly lost those stubborn 10 pounds.

A look back in time clearly shows that animal foods were far more favored than they are now. Across the globe, in 1960s Africa, men of the Masai tribe were observed to consume an average of 3 to 5 liters of milk, or more than a pound of butterfat, per day without any signs of heart disease. They also ate meat, but no vegetables. And while these tribal warriors were definitely more active than an office worker like me, the Masai didnt gain weight upon adopting a more sedentary life in old age.

Inspired partly by these stories, researchers over the past decade have rigorously tested the idea that following a high-fat regimen might actually be healthy. Simply put, I found a high-fat, low-carb diet was healthier. With that kind of solid scientific evidence in hand, I headed to the butcher. One night, I dug up and made my grandmothers brisket recipe. On another, I bought a roast for dinner and browned it in butterI had learned that butter and lard were the main fats used by American housewives before 1900, long before the epidemics of obesity and diabetes descended upon us.

Soon I felt like a 19th-century housewife myself, with a stewpot continually bubbling on the back burner and a Mason jar full of homemade lard on hand. People used to fry their eggs in the fat left over from cooking bacon, and I did that too. Delicious. And my special low-carb pancakes cooked with lard are exceptionally crispy and light, as my boys, now ages 11 and 7, can happily attest.

It also slowly dawned on me that cooking meat was a more efficient way to get a meal on the table. Making a vegetarian feast for friends, with all the slicing, dicing and roasting, could easily consume the better part of a day. Grilling a steak, by contrast, takes 10 minutes. With a simple green salad, its not only a complete meal but also one that allows me to enjoy my friends and family.

Its shocking that meat, cheese and eggs have been unfairly condemned for so many decades based on faulty, unreliable evidence. We are clearly more obese and diabetic for having replaced these foods with high-carb grains and sugar. I dont miss the low-fat life not the tasteless rice cakes, the salads without dressing, or the dry, skinless chicken breasts. Now I throw two sticks of butter in a pan with a whole chicken, and when all my guests rave about how its the most delicious bird theyve ever tasted, I just smile and tell them, The secret is not just the butter, but also that its good for you.   

11. Before the author realized the value of animal foods, she would purposely avoid ______.(A) chicken breasts(B) grains(C) beef steaks(D) stir-fried vegetable

12. Which of the following statements is TRUE?(A) The author was overweight in spite of what she thought a healthy diet.(B) The author was overweight for lack of exercise.(C) The author lost ten pounds by turning to a low-fat diet.(D) The author was in good shape by going on a healthy diet.

13. What does the story of the African Masai people tell us?(A) Living an active lifestyle can help burn the extra calories.(B) The more fat one takes in, the healthier he can expect to be.(C) There is no diet that fits all races.(D) A high-fat diet may be healthier than we thought.

14. Turning to a higher-fat diet has produced the following consequences EXCEPT ______.(A) enabling the author to return to the old ways of cooking(B) making the authors family more satisfied with their food(C) buying the author extra time to enjoy life(D) helping her sons shed weight

15. What is the best title for this passage?(A) Give Animal Foods a Fair Shake(B) American Foods Safer Than We Thought(C) The Benefits of High-carb Grains (D) Butter and Lard Do More Good Than Harm

Questions 1620

Older Americans are less healthy than their English counterparts, but they live as long as or even longer than their English peers, according to a new study by researchers from the RAND Corporation and the Institute for Fiscal Studies in London. Researchers found that while Americans aged 55 to 64 have higher rates of chronic diseases than their peers in England; they died at about the same rate. And Americans age 65 and olderwhile still sicker than their English peershad a lower death rate than similar people in England, according to findings published in the journal Demography.

The paper was co-authored by James Banks and Alastair Muriel of the Institute for Fiscal Studies and James P. Smith, distinguished chair in labor markets and demographic studies at RAND. If you get sick at older ages, you will die sooner in England than in the United States, Smith said. It appears that at least in terms of survival at older ages with chronic disease, the medical system in the United States may be better than the system in England.

In the new study, researchers examined the prevalence of illness among those 55 to 64 and 70 to 80. They also looked for the first time at the onset of new illnesses in those age groups in the United States and England during the years spanning 2005 to 2009. Finally, researchers examined trends in death rates in each country.

The findings showed that both disease prevalence and the onset of new disease were higher among Americans for the illnesses studieddiabetes, high-blood pressure, heart disease, heart attack, stroke, chronic lung diseases and cancer. Researchers found that the higher prevalence of illness among Americans compared to the English that they previously found for those aged 55 to 64 was also apparent for those in their 70s. Diabetes rates were almost twice as high in the United States as in England (17.2 percent versus 10.4 percent) and cancer prevalence was more than twice as high in the United States (17.9 percent compared to 7.8 percent) for people in their 70s.

In spite of both higher prevalence and incidence of disease in America, death rates among Americans were about the same in the younger ages in this period of life and actually lower at older ages compared to the English. Researchers say there are two possible explanations why death rates are higher for English after age 65 as compared to Americans. One is that the illnesses studied result in higher mortality in England than in the United States. The second is that the English are diagnosed at a later stage in the disease process than Americans. Both of these explanations imply that there is higher-quality medical care in the United States than in England, at least in the sense that these chronic illnesses are less likely to cause death among people living in the United States, Smith said.

The United States health problem is not fundamentally a health care or insurance problem, at least at older ages, Banks said. It is a problem of excess illness and the solution to that problem may lie outside the health care delivery system. The solution may be to alter lifestyles or other behaviors. The study also investigated the relationship between the financial resources of individuals in both countries and how soon they would die in the future.

While poorer people are more likely to die sooner than their more well-off counterparts, researchers say their finding supports the view that the primary pathway between health and wealth is that poor health leads to a depletion of household wealth, rather than being poor causes ones health to decline. Researchers found that the substantial changes in wealth that occurred in the years 1992 and 2002 in the United States through increases in stock prices and housing prices did not alter the probability of subsequent death. 

16. Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the passage?(A) Older Americans can live as long as their English peers though they are less healthy.(B) Americans aged 65+ are healthier than their English counterparts.(C) Older people with chronic disease have a better chance of survival in the U.S than in the U.K.(D) Older Americans have a lower death rate because they have better access to medical care.

17. In this passage, the word prevalence can be best paraphrased as ______.(A) that is generally observed(B) that is unique in human beings(C) that is specially chosen (D) that is roughly estimated

18. Researchers studied all the following diseases EXCEPT ______.(A) heart disease(B) obesity(C) diabetes(D) high blood pressure

19. The United States health problem isa problem of excess illness (para. 6) probably means it ______.(A) arises because Americans lack physical exercise(B) arises because Americans have no access to adequate medical care(C) is attributable to inadequate nutrition(D) is attributable to American lifestyles

20. According to the findings of the study, ______.(A) life expectancy has little to do with the amount of wealth (B) poor health exhausts financial resources(C) poverty leads to poor health.(D) the more wealth one possesses, the longer he can expect to live

Questions 2125

Many firms fail because when they begin exporting they have not researched the target markets or developed an international marketing plan. To be successful, a firm must clearly define goals, objectives and potential problems. Secondly, it must develop a definitive plan to accomplish its objective, regardless of the problems involved. Unless the firm is fortunate enough to possess a staff with considerable expertise, it may not be able to take this crucial first step without qualified outside guidance.

Often top management is not committed enough to overcome the initial difficulties and financial requirements of exporting. It can often take more time and effort to establish a firm in a foreign market than in the domestic one. Although the early delays and costs involved in exporting may seem difficult to justify when compared to established domestic trade, the exporter should take a more objective view of this process and carefully monitor international marketing efforts through these early difficulties. If a good foundation is laid for export business, the benefits derived should eventually outweigh the investment.

Another problem area is in the selection of the foreign distributor. The complications involved in overseas communications and transportation require international distributors to act with greater independence than their domestic counterparts. Also, since a new exporters trademarks and reputation are usually unknown in the foreign market, foreign customers may buy on the strength of the distributing agents reputation. A firm should therefore conduct a thorough evaluation of the distributors facilities, the personnel handling its account, and the management methods employed.

Another common difficulty for the new exporter is the neglect of the exporter market once the domestic one booms: too many companies only concentrate on exporting when there is a recession. Others may refuse to modify products to meet the regulations or cultural preferences of other countries. Local safety regulations cannot be ignored by exporters. If necessary modifications are not made at the factory, the distributor must make them, usually at a greater cost and probably not as satisfactorily.

If exporters expect distributing agents to actively promote their accounts, they must be trained, and their performance continually monitored. This requires a company marketing executive to be located permanently in the distributors geographical region. It is therefore advisable for new exporters to concentrate their efforts in a few geographical areas until there is sufficient business to support a company representative. The distributor should also be treated on an equal basis with domestic counterparts. For example, special discount offers, sales incentive programmes and special credit terms should be available. 

21. In the first paragraph, the writer suggests that firms thinking about exporting should ______.(A) get professional advice(B) study international marketing(C) identify the most profitable markets(D) have different objectives to other exporters

22. The writer believes that if sufficient preparation is undertaken ______. (A) initial difficulties can be easily avoided(B) the costs can be recovered quite quickly(C) management will become more committed(D) the exporter will be successful in the long run

23. According to the passage, an exporter should choose a distributor who ______. (A) has experienced personnel(B) has good communication skills(C) is well-established in the target market(D) is not financially dependent on the import business

24. New exporters often make the mistake of ignoring the export market when ______.(A) distribution costs are too high(B) their product is selling well at home(C) there is a global economic recession(D) distributors cannot make safety modifications

25. For foreign distributors to be successful, the exporters must ______.(A) focus on one particular region(B) finance local advertising campaigns(C) give the same support as they would to domestic agents(D) make sure there are sufficient marketing staff locally

Questions 2630

With the parliamentary elections behind us, we now have an unobstructed view of how one of the worlds most important political stories will unfold. Prime Minister David Cameron, who shocked pollsters by winning an outright majority in elections on May 7, promised voters a referendum by the end of 2017 on whether Britain will remain a member of the European Union. Some observers say that its all smoke, that Britons surely wont vote to exit the E.U. Maybe. But the possibility of an exitand the fear, anxiety and opportunism it generatesmake this a story the world dare not ignore.

Britains economy is among the strongest in Europe. Its GDP grew by 2.6% last year, one of the best performances in the developed world. Employment stands at a record high. Yet Britains election results prove once again that the anti-E.U. populism now roiling European politics is alive and well in the U.K. Conservatives won their majority in part by promising a vote on E.U. membership that many party members dont actually want. Labour, which carefully hedged its referendum bets, took a beating of surprising scale. The elections biggest loser, the centrist Liberal Democrats, proved beyond a doubt that in this political climate, the middle of the road is the surest place to get hit by a truck.

The only pro-E.U. winner in Britains vote was the Scottish National Party (SNP), which won 56 of Scotlands 59 contested seats just months after leading a failed effort to win Scotlands independence from the U.K. Another winner was the Euroskeptic right-wing U.K. Independence Party (UKIP). The party won just one seat in the House of Commons, but its 12.6% of the national vote was more than either the Liberal Democrats or SNP could muster. Beyond its seat or vote count, UKIP has changed British politics by giving voice to public frustration with the E.U. and pushing the referendum to center stage.

Now the referendum is coming. Whats at stake? In many ways, E.U. membership has served Britain wellparticularly its supersize banking sector, which has helped make London into a global city. In 2014, financial and insurance services brought in $193.7 billion in gross value added (GVA) to the U.K. economy, totaling 8% of the U.K.s GVA. Its little surprise, then, that fear of a British exitwhich could seriously upset the international banking industryhas persuaded some U.K. financial institutions to send up warnings. Some 72% of British companies polled by the firm Grant Thornton say an exit would hurt business. HSBC has warned that it would consider relocating its headquarters from London should the U.K. leave the E.U.

No wonder British firms are on edge. By some estimates, Brexit would cost the U.K. $330 billion, or 14% of its GDP. After leaving, Britain would have to renegotiate trade relationships with individual E.U. members, and its government would lose much of its international clout. London would also become a less important ally for the U.S., which values Britain in part for its influence within the E.U. Finally, if polls suggest that a British exit is really possible, an empowered SNP might demand that overwhelmingly pro-E.U. Scots again get to vote on Scottish independenceand this time, they might well win.

Right now, British voters are roughly split on an E.U. exit. In a recent poll by the consultancy Populus, 39% said they want to leave, while about 40% said they want to stay. That leaves a lot of undecided voters, and much will happen over the next two years. Bets will be hedged and preparations made, in Britain and across Europe. That alone will be a story worth following. 

26. Prime Minister David Cameron promised voters a referendum by the end of 2017 on whether Britain will remain a member of the European Union. The word referendum means ______.(A) a political campaign to the electorate (B) an effort to win Scotlands independence from the U.K.(C) a recent poll by the consultancy Populus(D) a direct political decision by general vote

27. According to the passage, which of the following statements about the British economy is NOT true? (A) Britains GDP grew by 2.6% last year.(B) Unemployment stands at a record high.(C) Britains economy is among the strongest in Europe.(D) Financial services brought in $193.7 billion in GVA to the U.K. economy.

28. According to the writer, giving voice to public frustration with the E.U. has been promoted by ______.(A) the Scottish National Party(B) The UK Independence Party(C) the Liberal Democrats(D) the Labor Party

29. The passage indicates that Brexit would ______. (A) hurt small business in the United Kingdom(B) make the U.K. a less important ally for the U.S.(C) cost the U.K. $330 billion, or 13% of its GDP(D) empower British firms to relocate their headquarters

30. It can be inferred from the passage that ______.(A) Britains election could mean an unruly exit from the E.U.(B) British voters are unevenly split on an E.U. exit(C) British exit would cost the E.U. 14% of its economy(D) Britain would renegotiate political links with individual E.U. members

SECTION 3: TRANSLATION TEST (1)(30 minutes)

Directions: Translate the following passage into Chinese and write your version in the corresponding space on your ANSWER SHEET. 

Speaking two languages rather than just one has obvious practical benefits in an increasingly globalized world. But in recent years, scientists have begun to show that the advantages of bilingualism are even more fundamental than being able to converse with a wider range of people. Being bilingual, it turns out, makes you smarter. It can have a profound effect on your brain, improving other skills not related to language.

This view of bilingualism is remarkably different from the understanding of bilingualism through much of the 20th century. Researchers, educators and policy makers long considered a second language to be an interference that hindered a childs academic and intellectual development.

But this interference, researchers are finding out, isnt so much a handicap as a blessing in disguise. It forces the brain to resolve internal conflict, giving the mind a workout that strengthens its ability of knowledge acquisition. The bilingual experience appears to influence the brain from infancy to old age and there is reason to believe that it may also apply to those who learn a second language later in life. 

SECTION 4: TRANSLATION TEST (2)(30 minutes)

Directions: Translate the following passage into English and write your version in the corresponding space on your ANSWER SHEET. 

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