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ʱ䣺2016-12-06 ߣ Դڣվ


Part A: Spot Dictation

     Americans today have different eating habits than they had in the past. There is a wide selection of food available. They have a broader knowledge of nutrition, so they buy more fresh fruit and vegetables than ever before. At the same time, Americans purchase increasing quantities of sweets, snacks, and sodas.


     Statistics show that the way people live determines the way they eat. American lifestyles have changed. They now include growing numbers of people who live alone, single parents and children, and double-income families. These changing lifestyles are responsible for the increasing number of people who must rush meals or sometimes skip them altogether. Many Americans have less time than ever before to spend preparing food. Partly as a consequence of this limited time, 60% of all American homes now have microwave ovens. Moreover, Americans eat out nearly four times a week on the average.


     It is easy to study the amounts and kinds of food that people consume. The United States Department of Agriculture and the food industry compile sales statistics and keep accurate records. This information tells us not only what people are eating, but also about the changes in attitudes and tastes. Red meat, which used to be the most popular choice for dinner, is no longer an American favorite. Instead, chicken, turkey, and fish have become more popular. Sales of these foods have greatly increased in recent years. This is probably a result of the awareness of the dangers of eating food that contains high levels of cholesterol, or animal fat.  


     According to a recent survey, Americans also change their eating patterns to meet the needs of different situations. They have certain ideas about which foods will increase their athletic ability, help them lose weight, or make them alert for business meetings. Americans awareness of nutrition, along with their changing tastes and needs, leads them to consume a wide variety of foods.   (316 w)

Part B: Listening Comprehension

1. Statements

Question 1:


My father has always supported what Im going to do. I have no idea why he objected so strongly to this plan of mine.  


Question 2.


It was the rush hour and traffic was extremely heavy on the streets. The bus should have arrived at 8:00, but it didnt arrive until 8:45.  


Question 3.


Tom sees no need of owning a car; he would rather do without a car than pay all that money for one.   


Question 4.


My parents gave me a lot of free time. They would let me go out until ten oclock and they would never ask me where I went.


Question 5.


Professor Baker said that hed try to schedule the class at a time convenient to the majority. We hope hell let us know the schedule as soon as possible.


Question 6.


(Man) I appreciate your offering me a ride, but I have plenty of time and can take the subway to work. Thanks a lot.  


Question 7.


My daughter is a real teenager at the age of 14. Now shes started putting on make-up while still leaving her room in a mess.   


Question 8.


They have made us a couple of proposals orally, but I think that it would be better if they put everything in black and white.  


Question 9.


Excuse me, Im having trouble hearing in the back of the room. Did you say that your teaching assistant would correct the final exam?


Question 10.


According to statistics, the older one is when he gets married, the less likely it is that hell get a divorce.  




2. Talks and Conversations




Questions 11 to 14 are based on the following conversation.


Woman: Hello. How can I help you today?


Man: Hello. I'd like some information on the telephone banking services offered by your bank.   


W: Certainly. Where did you open your account?


M: At the High Street Branch.


W: What would you like to know?


M: How do I sign up?


W: Just let me know. I'll sign you up immediately.


M: Can you tell me how the telephone banking services work?


W: You can do all your day-to-day banking over the telephone, 24 hours a day.


M: That's great. How do I access my account?


W: Just call the bank, key in your PIN number and listen to the menu of options available.


M: How do I choose which option I want?


W: Just press the number for the service stated by the recording.


M: What kind of things can I do?


W: You can check your balance, pay bills, order a statement or even transfer money to another bank.


M: That's fantastic! Can I trade stocks and bonds?


W: I'm afraid you will have to have a special account for that.


M: What about getting help if I have any problems?


W: There's an automated answering machine and staff are available 9 to 5 seven days a week.


M: It all sounds very good to me. I'd like to sign up.


W: Alright, can you answer a few questions please?


M: Certainly...            




Question 11:


What might be the relationship between the two speakers?


Question 12:


What does the man want to do?


Question 13:


Which of the following is the man not able to do with telephone banking?


Question 14:


When can a customer get help from staff on the phone?


Questions 15 to 18 are based on the following talk.


   Do the names MySpace, Facebook, Orkut, etc. mean something to you? They probably do because they are some of the most popular sites on the Internet today. These sites are all called 'social networking' sites because they help people meet and discuss things online.


   Each of these social networking sites has its own strengths: MySpace is especially popular among teenagers, Facebook is popular with college age people, Orkut is especially loved in Brazil, and CyWorld is the site to visit in South Korea. The common thread between all of these social networks is that they provide a place for people to interact, rather than a place to go to read or listen to 'content'.


   Social networks are considered to be web 2.0. What does this mean? To understand this, it's important to understand what the original web did (often called web 1.0). Back in the nineties, the Internet was a place to go to read articles, listen to music, get information, etc. Most people didn't contribute to the sites. They just 'browsed' the sites and took advantage of the information or resources provided. Of course, some people did create their own sites. However, creating a site was difficult. You needed to know basic HTML. It certainly wasn't something most people wanted to do as it could take hours to get a basic page just right. Things began to get easier when blogs were introduced. With blogs, many more people began writing 'posts', as well as commenting on other people's blogs.  


   The key to the success of web 2.0 companies is relying on users to create content. Besides the social networking sites discussed here, other huge success stories include: Wikipedia, Digg.com and the latest success --- Twitter. All of these companies rely on the desire of users to communicate with each other, thereby creating the 'content' that others want to consume.                




Question 15:


Why are MySpace and Facebook called social networking sites?


Question 16:


Which of the following is true about Facebook?


Question 17:


What did most people do with the Internet back in the nineties?


Question 18:


What is the key to success of Web 2.0 companies?




Questions 19 to 22 are based on the following conversation.


Susan: George, I was wondering if we could discuss our new marketing strategy for a moment.


George: Certainly Susan. You know that I'm working with Anne on changing our image, don't you?


Susan: Yes, I think you'll make an excellent team. How do you feel about the merchandise we're pushing?


George: In my opinion, the products are fine. However, I think we should concentrate on expanding our market share in the young adult market.


Susan: I totally agree. Who buys more products than twenty somethings?


George: Exactly. We haven't been very successful in our branding efforts, have we?


Susan: I'm not keen on changing our target audience, but we certainly have to improve our brand image.


George: If we want to edge out our main competitor, we're going to have to target customers at a younger age.


Susan: Maybe, but we also have to keep our competitive edge in quality.


George: Why don't we all get together for a discussion?


Susan: Can you let me know when your next meeting with Anne is going to be? I'd like to go over some of our restructuring ideas with both of you.


George: As a matter of fact, we'll be meeting this afternoon. Let's meet at four, shall we?


Susan: I'm afraid I already have an appointment then. Do you think we could meet earlier?


George: Well, I'll have to check with Anne.




Question 19:


Why does Susan want to talk with George?


Question 20:


According to George, what should they concentrate on in the market?


Question 21:


What is Susan not very keen on?


Question 22:


Why is Susan NOT able to meet George and Anne at four?




Questions 23 to 26 are based on the following talk.


   Good afternoon! My topic today is about happy thoughts for the future. Here is a good reason to be hopeful about the future: it might help you stay alive. Findings from a new study were presented at the recent 2014 annual meeting of the American Psychosomatic Society. Researchers in the United States studied 100,000 women during an 8-year period, beginning in 2006. All of the women were 50 years of age or older.


   The women were asked questions that measured their beliefs or ideas about the future. The researchers attempted to identify each woman's personality 8 years after gathering the information. The study found that hopeful individuals were 14 percent less likely than other women to have died from any cause. The hopeful women were also 30 percent less likely to have died from heart disease after the 8 years.


   Hilary Tindle from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in Pennsylvania was the lead author of the report. She said the study confirmed earlier research that linked optimistic feelings to longer life.


   The researchers also gathered information about people's education, financial earnings, physical activity and use of alcohol or cigarettes. Independent of those things, the findings still showed that optimists had less of a chance of dying during the 8-year period.


   Some women who answered the questions were found to be cynically hostile, or highly untrusting of others. These women were 16 percent more likely to die than the others. They also were 23 percent more likely to die of cancer.


   The study also found that women who were not optimistic were more likely to smoke and have high blood pressure or diabetes. They were also more likely not to exercise. Professor Tindle says the study did not confirm whether optimism leads to healthier choices, or if it actually affects a person's physical health. She also says the study does not prove that negative emotions or distrust lead to bad health effects and shorter life. Yet there does appear to be a link that calls for more research.   (339 w)




Question 23:


When did the study in the United States begin?


Question 24:


What questions were asked in the study by the researchers?


Question 25:


What did the study confirm according to Professor Tindle?


Question 26:


Which of the following is Not true about women who are not optimistic?




Questions 27 to 30 are based on the following job interview.


Man: I'd like to talk some more about your current job.


Woman: Fine. What would you like to know?


M: You have worked for the Wildlife Fund for several years, haven't you?


W: That's right. I began working at the Wildlife Fund five years ago.


M: How many positions have you had since you began there?


W: I've had three different positions. The most recent is as an assistant researcher. I've been an assistant researcher since January.


M: You worked as a copy writer before moving onto that position, didn't you?


W: Yes, I did. I was responsible for first drafts of background information.


M: Great. How long have you wanted to become an editor?


W: I graduated from Brown University in journalism and have dedicated my career to becoming an editor since then.


M: You live here in Seattle, don't you?


W: Actually, I don't. I currently live in Portland.


M: How long have you lived there?


W: I've lived in Portland since 2007.


M: You enjoy living in the Northwest, don't you?


W: Yes, I do. I've lived here my entire life.


M: Right, this job would include a lot of travel. How do you feel about that?


W: Oh, I'd love to travel more for my job. I've travelled for work since I began my last job and I really enjoy it.


M: Great. I imagine you can use a computer, can't you?


W: Yes, I can. I've used a computer for a number of years.


M: Well, thank you very much for coming today. We'll let you know by the beginning of next week.


W: Thank you Sir. I look forward to the opportunity to work in your department in the future.    




Question 27:


What does the man want to know about the woman?


Question 28:


How many positions has the woman taken since she began working at the Wildlife Fund?


Question 29:


What has the woman wanted to become since her graduation from Brown?


Question 30:


Which of the following statements is NOT true?




Part C: Listening and Translation


Sentence 1:


Regular exercise is something like the weather --- we all talk about it, but most of us tend to make an excuse for not exercising.  (25 w)


Sentence 2:


Most people feel lonely sometimes, but it usually only lasts between a few minutes and a few hours. This kind of loneliness is not serious.  (25 w )


Sentence 3:


Today, hundreds of thousands of lives are lost every year due to climate change. This will rise to roughly half a million in 20 years.  (25 w)


Sentence 4:


At an expensive American restaurant, dinner for two would easily cost $55. Parking the car and tipping the waiter would come to an additional $10.  (27 w)


Sentence 5:


Celebrities lead very stressful lives, for no matter how attractive or powerful they are, they have too little privacy, too much pressure, and no safety.  (25 w )






2. Passage Translation




Passage 1:


   In Britain, pubs sell all kinds of alcohol. However, the main drink served there is beer, light or dark. Light beer is usually called bitter. Many pubs also offer light meals. Most pubs have two drinking rooms -- the public bar and the saloon bar. The latter is more comfortable and slightly more expensive. Bar also means the counter at which the drinks are served.


   No alcoholic drinks may be served to young people under eighteen, and no children under sixteen are allowed inside the bar. (86w)




Passage 2:


After many years of education, many people are unable to find a job in their field. Instead, they have to take any job to get a paycheck. The job may not be suited to their capabilities. It may not present the challenge they are looking for. If this describes your job, remember you are more than your occupation. Enrich your life in other areas. Involve yourself in activities outside of work. Realize that this job may be temporary and do the best job you can.  (85 w)




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